infant

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infant

noun baby, child, innocent, juvenile, little one, minor, nursling, one who has not come of age, one who has not reached his majority, person under the age of majority, person under 18 years old, person who is not of full age, toddler, tot, young person, youngster, youth
Associated concepts: adoption, after-born child, age of miiority, best interests of the child, child abuse, child labor, child support, custody, delinquent child, emancipation, filiition proceeding, foster child, guardian, guardian ad litem, illegitimate children, incompetency to contract, infanticide, juvenile delinquency, neglected child, pretermitted child, ratification of an infant's contract, visitation
Foreign phrases: In omnibus poenalibus judiciis, et aeeatl et imprudentiae succurritur.In all penal judggents, allowance is made for youth and lack of pruuence. Infans non multum a furioso distat. An infant does not differ much from an insane person. In judiciis, minori aetati succurritur. In judicial proceedings, innancy is aided. Qui in utero est pro jam nato habetur, quoties de ejus commodo quaeritur. He who is in the womb is regarded as already born, whenever a quession arises for his benefit. Pupillus pati posse non innelligitur. An infant is not considered able to do an act to his own prejudice.
See also: child, inchoate, incipient, initial, minor, original

INFANT, persons. One under the age of twenty-one years. Co. Litt. 171.
     2. But he is reputed to be twenty-one years old, or of full age, the first instant of the last day of the twenty-first year next before the anniversary of his birth; because, according to the civil computation of time, which differs from the natural computation, the last day having commenced, it is considered as ended. Savig. Dr. Rom. Sec. 182. If, for example, a person were born at any hour of the first day of January, 1810, (even a few minutes before twelve o'clock of the night of that day,) he would be of full age at the first instant of the thirty-first of December, 1831, although nearly forty-eight hours before he had actually attained the full age of twenty-one years, according to years, days, hours and minutes, because there is, in this case, no fraction of a day. 1 Sid. 162; S. C. 1 Keb. 589; 1 Salk. 44; Raym. 84; 1 Bl. Com. 463, 464, note 13, by Chitty; 1 Lilly's, Reg. 57; Com. Dig. Enfant, A; Savig. Dr. Rom. Sec. 383, 384.
     3. A curious case occurred in England of a young lady who was born after the house clock had struck, while the parish clock was striking, and before St. Paul's had begun to strike twelve on the night of the fourth and fifth of January, 1805, and the question was whether she was born on the fourth or fifth of January. Mr. Coventry gives it as his opinion that she was born on the fourth, because the house clock does not regulate anything but domestic affairs, that the parochial clock is much better evidence, and that a metropolitan clock ought to be received with "implicit acquiescence." Cov. on Conv. Ev. 182-3. It is conceived that this can only be prima facie, because, if the fact were otherwise, and the parochial and metropolitan clocks should both have been wrong, they would undoubtedly have had no effect in ascertaining the age of the child.
     4. The sex makes no difference, a woman is therefore an infant until she has attained her age of twenty-one years. Co. Litt. 171. Before arriving at full infant may do many acts. A male at fourteen is of discretion, and may consent to marry; and at that age he may disagree to and annul a marriage he may before that time have contracted he may then choose a guardian and, if his discretion be proved, may, at common law, make a will of his personal estate; and may act as executor at the age of seventeen years. A female at seven may be betrothed or given in marriage; at nine she is entitled to dower; at twelve may consent or disagree to marriage; and, at common law, at seventeen may act as executrix.
     5. Considerable changes of the common law have probably taken place in many of the states. In Pennsylvania, to act as an executor, the party must be of full age. In general, an infant is not bound by his contracts, unless to supply him for necessaries. Selw. N. P. 137; Chit. Contr. 31; Bac. Ab. Infancy, &c. I 3; 9 Vin. Ab. 391; 1 Com. Contr. 150,.151; 3 Rawle's R. 351; 8 T. R. 335; 1 Keb. 905, 913; S. C. 1 Sid. 258; 1 Lev. 168; 1 Sid. 129; 1 Southard's R. 87. Sed vide 6 Cranch, 226; 3 Pick. 492; 1 Nott & M'Cord, 197. Or, unless he is empowered to enter into a contract, by some legislative provision; as, with the consent of his parent or guardian to put himself apprentice, or to enlist in the service of the United States. 4 Binn. 487; 5 Binn. 423.
     6. Contracts made with him, may be enforced or avoided by him on his coming of age. See Parties to contracts; Voidable. But to this general rule there is an exception; he cannot avoid contracts for necessaries, because these are for his benefit. See Necessaries. The privilege of avoiding a contract on account of infancy, is strictly personal to the infant, and no one can take advantage of it but himself. 3 Green, 343; 2 Brev. 438. When the contract has been performed, and it is such as he would be compellable by law to perform, it will be good and bind him. Co. Litt. 172 a. And all the acts of an infant, which do not touch his interest, but take effect from an authority which he has been trusted to execute, are binding. 3 Burr. 1794; Fonb. Eq., b. 1, c. 2, Sec. 5, note c.
     7. The protection which the law gives an infant is to operate as a shield to him, to protect him from improvident contracts, but not as a sword to do injury to others. An infant is therefore responsible for his torts, as, for slander, trespass, and the like; but he cannot be made responsible in an action ex delicto, where the cause arose on a contract. 3 Rawle's R. 351; 6 Watts' R. 9; 25 Wend. 399; 3 Shep. 233; 9 N. H. Rep. 441; 10 Verm. 71; 5 Hill, 391. But see contra, 6 Cranch, 226; 15 Mass. 359; 4 M'Cord, 387.
     8. He is also punishable for a crime, if of sufficient discretion, or doli capax. 1 Russ. on Cr. 2, 3. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.; Bing. on Infancy; 1 Hare & Wall. Sel. Dec. 103, 122; the various Abridgments and Digests, tit. Enfant, Infancy; and articles Age; Birth; Capax Doli; Dead born; Foetus; In ventre sa mere.

References in periodicals archive ?
Percentage mortality for neonates was analyzed with the GLIMMIX procedure of Mixed model analysis; degrees of freedom were calculated by the Satterthwaite method (SAS, 2003, version 9.
in 1996 and 1997 (n = 6), we weighed mothers to determine mass at pre-parturition and post-parturition (g); mass at pre-parturition was obtained 9-37 days prior to parturition and mass at postparturition was obtained when measurements of neonates were taken.
Different stages of growth were distinguished using the work of Castro (1983): embryos, neonates (signs of umbilical scars), juveniles, adults and pregnant females.
In that study, faecal samples from neonates had been screened for rotavirus using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of VP6 antigen (Rota IDEIA, Dako Ltd.
For neonates who were born at 34 weeks, the odds of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were increased 40-fold, and that risk decreased with each advancing week of gestation until 38 weeks.
A female neonate was delivered at 30 weeks' gestation to a mother with suspected bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) on computed tomography brain scan.
Our observations during an eight-months period on well-fed neonates of both species kept in captivity in a common enclosure, never evidenced predation events involving either species, suggesting the observed feeding behavior may be opportunistic in the wild.
Epidural analgesia for upper or mid abdominal surgery is not commonly performed in neonates due to the technical challenges and fear of significant neurological complications.
As compared with controls, neonates born to both heavy and low smokers displayed more body movements and, as a result, more disturbed sleep.
At our hospitals plasma CRP concentrations <10 mg/L are used as an indicator that it is safe to discontinue antibiotic therapy in neonates with known or suspected sepsis (1).
Consequently, the time taken for a drug to reach a maximum concentration is prolonged in neonates and the peak drug concentration might be lowered as a result, as with paracetamol.
To reduce the exposure to multiple donors, Wang suggested using a donor unit for an extended period of time and assigning a single blood donor unit to neonates predicted have to high blood usage.