dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Remember, there are times when no mutations can be found in the nuclear DNA in spite of cancer's being present.
The scope of the accreditation must include forensic biology with applicable subcategories to perform the requested services to include serology (body fluid identification) and nuclear DNA testing.
Other concerns involve more technical issues, such as unknowns regarding the interactions of the nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA.
Changing the law to allow mitochondrial donation in no way affects the firm ban on altering nuclear DNA or reproductive human cloning, it is claimed.
Its nuclear DNA is then transferred to a fertilised donor egg, containing healthy mitochondria, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed.
An egg from one species, such as a domestic cow, has its nucleus removed and replaced with the nucleus and nuclear DNA of an endangered species, such as the Javan banteng, a type of wild cow found in Southeast Asia.
In either case, the nuclear DNA hails from the mother and father, but the mitochondria and their DNA come from a second woman.
Skeleton Unlike nuclear DNA, found in the hearts of cells, mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from mothers.
In addition, mitochondria contain their own genomes, which code for specific proteins and are expressed in coordination with nuclear DNA to regulate the provision of energy to cells.
The researchers also collected 235 tissue samples from animals in the same areas, stretching from the eastern Atlantic to the western Pacific Oceans, analyzing both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA for significant variations between populations.
That means we can get the least damaged DNA and first of all - nuclear DNA.
The nuclear DNA, which influences characteristics such as sex, height and eye colour, would come from the mother and father.

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