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Dinoflagellate polyether within the yessotoxin, pectenotoxin and okadaic acid toxin groups: characterization, analysis and human health implications.
For example, single application of TPA and okadaic acid class tumor promoters induced TNF-[alpha] gene expression in mouse skin and increased the release of TNF-[alpha] from various cancer cells.
Inhibition of PP2A, but not PP5, mediates p53 activation by low levels of okadaic acid in rat liver epithelial cells.
Inhibitory effect of okadaic acid on the p-nitrophenyl phosphate phosphatase activity of protein phosphatases.
Inhibitory effect of a marine-sponge toxin, okadaic acid, on protein phosphatases.
DSP toxins such as okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs), and lipophilic toxins such as pectenotoxins (PTXs) are known to bc produced by dinoflagellate species of the genera Dinophysis and Prorocentrum (Lee et al.
2 mM okadaic acid for another 24 h, resulting in induction of TNF-[alpha] release.
In Sweden and Norway, DSP toxins (DST) of the okadaic acid (OA) group were first discovered in 1983 in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis L.
Phosphatase Inhibitor PP1 Okadaic acid PP2A Okadaic acid PP2B (calcineurin) CsA PP2C - Table 2.
Chemical analysis by LC-MS conducted in mussels harvested from this region showed, in addition to the presence of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), the presence of azaspiracid-2 (AZA2) as the dominant form of the azaspiracid's (AZAs) family, followed by AZA1 (13% to 26%).
Although bivalves that are actively feeding on nontoxic algae are likely to exhibit faster depuration (Bricelj & Shumway 1998), when mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, contaminated with PSP toxin, okadaic acid, were transferred to a toxin-free zone the rate of depuration did not decrease significantly (Blanco et al.
Okadaic acid (OA) and 35-methylokadaic acid (DTX-I) were purchased from Alexis Biochemicals, Lausen, Switzerland.