partnership

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Partnership

An association of two or more persons engaged in a business enterprise in which the profits and losses are shared proportionally. The legal definition of a partnership is generally stated as "an association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners a business for profit" (Revised Uniform Partnership Act § 101 [1994]).Early English mercantile courts recognized a business form known as the societas. The societas provided for an accounting between its business partners, an agency relationship between partners in which individual partners could legally bind the partnership, and individual partner liability for the partnership's debts and obligations. As the regular English courts gradually recognized the societas, the business form eventually developed into the common-law partnership. England enacted its Partner-ship Act in 1890, and legal experts in the United States drafted a Uniform Partnership Act (UPA) in 1914. Every state has adopted some form of the UPA as its partnership statute; some states, however, have made revisions to the UPA or have adopted the Revised Uniform Partnership Act (RUPA), which legal scholars issued in 1994.

The authors of the initial UPA debated whether in theory a partnership should be treated as an aggregate of individual partners or as a corporate-like entity separate from its partners. The UPA generally opted for the aggregate theory in which individual partners ("an association") comprised the partnership. Under an aggregate theory, partners are co-owners of the business; the partnership is not a distinct legal entity. This led to the creation of a new property interest known as a "tenancy in partnership," a legal construct by which each partner co-owned partnership property. An aggregate approach nevertheless led to confusion as to whether a partnership could be sued or whether it could sue on its own behalf. Some courts took a technical approach to the aggregate theory and did not allow a partnership to sue on its own behalf. In addition, some courts would not allow a suit to go forward against a partnership unless the claimant named each partner in the complaint or added each partner as an "indispensable party."

The RUPA generally adopted the entity approach, which treats the partnership as a separate legal entity that may own property and sue on its own behalf. The RUPA nevertheless treats the partnership in some instances as an aggregate of co-owners; for example, it retains the joint liability of partners for partnership obligations. As a practical matter, therefore, the present-day partnership has both aggregate and entity attributes. The partnership, for instance, is considered an association of co-owners for tax purposes, and each co-owner is taxed on his or her proportional share of the partnership profits.

Formation

The formation of a partnership requires a voluntary "association" of persons who "coown" the business and intend to conduct the business for profit. Persons can form a partnership by written or oral agreement, and a partnership agreement often governs the partners' relations to each other and to the partnership. The term person generally includes individuals, corporations, and other partnerships and business associations. Accordingly, some partner-ships may contain individuals as well as large corporations. Family members may also form and operate a partnership, but courts generally look closely at the structure of a family business before recognizing it as a partnership for the benefit of the firm's creditors.

Certain conduct may lead to the creation of an implied partnership. Generally, if a person receives a portion of the profits from a business enterprise, the receipt of the profits is evidence of a partnership. If, however, a person receives a share of profits as repayment of a debt, wages, rent, or an Annuity, such transactions are considered "protected relationships" and do not lead to a legal inference that a partnership exists.

Relationship of Partners to Each Other

Each partner has a right to share in the profits of the partnership. Unless the partnership agreement states otherwise, partners share profits equally. Moreover, partners must contribute equally to partnership losses unless a partnership agreement provides for another arrangement. In some jurisdictions a partner is entitled to the return of her or his capital contributions. In jurisdictions that have adopted the RUPA, however, the partner is not entitled to such a return.

In addition to sharing in the profits, each partner also has a right to participate equally in the management of the partnership. In many partnerships a majority vote resolves disputes relating to management of the partnership. Nevertheless, some decisions, such as admitting a new partner or expelling a partner, require the partners' unanimous consent.

Each partner owes a fiduciary duty to the partnership and to copartners. This duty requires that a partner deal with copartners in Good Faith, and it also requires a partner to account to copartners for any benefit that he or she receives while engaged in partnership business. If a partner generates profits for the part-nership, for example, that partner must hold the profits as a trustee for the partnership. Each partner also has a duty of loyalty to the partnership. Unless copartners consent, a partner's duty of loyalty restricts the partner from using partnership property for personal benefit and restricts the partner from competing with the partnership, engaging in self-dealing, or usurping partnership opportunities.

Relationship of Partners to Third Persons

A partner is an agent of the partnership. When a partner has the apparent or actual authority and acts on behalf of the business, the partner binds the partnership and each of the partners for the resulting obligations. Similarly, a partner's admission concerning the partnership's affairs is considered an admission of the partnership. A partner may only bind the partnership, however, if the partner has the authority to do so and undertakes transactions while conducting the usual partnership business. If a third person, however, knows that the partner is not authorized to act on behalf of the partnership, the partnership is generally not liable for the partner's unauthorized acts. Moreover, a partnership is not responsible for a partner's wrongful acts or omissions committed after the dissolution of the partnership or after the dissociation of the partner. A partner who is new to the partnership is not liable for the obligations of the partnership that occurred prior to the partner's admission.

Liability

Generally, each partner is jointly liable with the partnership for the obligations of the partnership. In many states each partner is jointly and severally liable for the wrongful acts or omissions of a copartner. Although a partner may be sued individually for all the damages associated with a wrongful act, partnership agreements generally provide for indemnification of the partner for the portion of damages in excess of her or his own proportional share.

Some states that have adopted the RUPA provide that a partner is jointly and severally liable for the debts and obligations of the partnership. Nevertheless, before a partnership's creditor can levy a judgment against an individual partner, certain conditions must be met, including the return of an unsatisfied writ of execution against the partnership. A partner may also agree that the creditor need not exhaust partnership assets before proceeding to collect against that partner. Finally, a court may allow a partnership creditor to proceed against an individual partner in an attempt to satisfy the partnership's obligations.

Partnership Property

A partner may contribute Personal Property to the partnership, but the contributed property becomes partnership property unless some other arrangement has been negotiated. Similarly, if the partnership purchases property with partnership assets, such property is presumed to be partnership property and is held in the partnership's name. The partnership may convey or transfer the property but only in the name of the partnership. Without the consent of all the partners, individual partners may not sell or assign partnership property.

In some jurisdictions the partnership property is considered personal property that each partner owns as a "tenant in partnership," but other jurisdictions expressly state that the partnership may own property. The tenant in partnership concept, which is the approach contained in the UPA, is the result of adopting an aggregate approach to partnerships. Because the aggregate theory is that the partnership is not a separate entity, it was thought that the partnership could not own property but that the individual partners must actually own it. This approach has led to considerable confusion, and the RUPA has expressly stated that the partnership may own partnership property.

Partnership Interests

A partner's interest in a partnership is considered personal property that may be assigned to other persons. If assigned, however, the person receiving the assigned interest does not become a partner. Rather, the assignee only receives the economic rights of the partner, such as the right to receive partnership profits. In addition, an assignment of the partner's interest does not give the assignee any right to participate in the management of the partnership. Such a right is a separate interest and remains with the partner.

Partnership Books

Generally, a partnership maintains separate books of account, which typically include records of the partnership's financial transactions and each partner's capital contributions. The books must be kept at the partnership's principal place of business, and each partner must have access to the books and be allowed to inspect and copy them upon demand. If a partnership denies a partner access to the books, he or she usually has a right to obtain an Injunction from a court to compel the partnership to allow him or her to inspect and copy the books.

Partnership Accounting

Under certain circumstances a partner has a right to demand an accounting of the partnership's affairs. The partnership agreement, if any, usually sets forth a partner's right to a predissolution accounting. State law also generally allows for an accounting if copartners exclude a partner from the partnership business or if copartners wrongfully possess partnership property. In a court action for an accounting, the partners must provide a report of the partnership business and detail any transactions dealing with partnership property. In addition, the partners who bring a court action for an accounting may examine whether any partners have breached their duties to copartners or the partnership.

Taxation

One of the primary reasons to form a partnership is to obtain its favorable tax treatment. Because partnerships are generally considered an association of co-owners, each of the partners is taxed on her or his proportional share of partnership profits. Such taxation is considered "pass-through" taxation in which only the indimvidual partners are taxed. Although a partnership is required to file annual tax returns, it is not taxed as a separate entity. Rather, the profits of the partnership "pass through" to the individual partners, who must then pay individual taxes on such income.

Dissolution

A dissolution of a partnership generally occurs when one of the partners ceases to be a partner in the firm. Dissolution is distinct from the termination of a partnership and the "winding up" of partnership business. Although the term dissolution implies termination, dissolution is actually the beginning of the process that ultimately terminates a partnership. It is, in essence, a change in the relationship between the partners. Accordingly, if a partner resigns or if a partnership expels a partner, the partnership is considered legally dissolved. Other causes of dissolution are the Bankruptcy or death of a partner, an agreement of all partners to dissolve, or an event that makes the partnership business illegal. For instance, if a partnership operates a gambling casino and gambling subsequently becomes illegal, the partnership will be considered legally dissolved. In addition, a partner may withdraw from the partnership and thereby cause a dissolution. If, however, the partner withdraws in violation of a partnership agreement, the partner may be liable for damages as a result of the untimely or unauthorized withdrawal.

After dissolution, the remaining partners may carry on the partnership business, but the partnership is legally a new and different partnership. A partnership agreement may provide for a partner to leave the partnership without dissolving the partnership but only if the departing partner's interests are bought by the continuing partnership. Nevertheless, unless the partnership agreement states otherwise, dissolution begins the process whereby the partnership's business will ultimately be wound up and terminated.

Dissociation

Under the RUPA, events that would otherwise cause dissolution are instead classified as the dissociation of a partner. The causes of dissociation are generally the same as those of dis-solution. Thus, dissociation occurs upon receipt of a notice from a partner to withdraw, by expulsion of a partner, or by bankruptcy-related events such as the bankruptcy of a partner. Dissociation does not immediately lead to the winding down of the partnership business. Instead, if the partnership carries on the business and does not dissolve, it must buy back the former partner's interest. If, however, the partnership is dissolved under the RUPA, then its affairs must be wound up and terminated.

Winding Up

Winding up refers to the procedure followed for distributing or liquidating any remaining partnership assets after dissolution. Winding up also provides a priority-based method for discharging the obligations of the partnership, such as making payments to non-partner creditors or to remaining partners. Only partners who have not wrongfully caused dissolution or have not wrongfully dissociated may participate in winding up the partnership's affairs.

State partnership statutes set the procedure to be used to wind up partnership business. In addition, the partnership agreement may alter the order of payment and the method of liquidating the assets of the partnership. Generally, however, the liquidators of a partnership pay non-partner creditors first, followed by partners who are also creditors of the partnership. If any assets remain after satisfying these obligations, then partners who have contributed capital to the partnership are entitled to their capital contributions. Any remaining assets are then divided among the remaining partners in accordance with their respective share of partnership profits.

Under the RUPA, creditors are paid first, including any partners who are also creditors. Any excess funds are then distributed according to the partnership's distribution of profits and losses. If profits or losses result from a liquidation, such profits and losses are charged to the partners' capital accounts. Accordingly, if a partner has a negative balance upon winding up the partnership, that partner must pay the amount necessary to bring his or her account to zero.

Limited Partnerships

A limited partnership is similar in many respects to a general partnership, with one essential difference. Unlike a general partnership, a limited partnership has one or more partners who cannot participate in the management and control of the partnership's business. A partner who has such limited participation is considered a "limited partner" and does not generally incur personal liability for the partnership's obligations. Generally, the extent of liability for a limited partner is the limited partner's capital contributions to the partnership. For this reason, limited partnerships are often used to provide capital to a partnership through the capital contributions of its limited partners. Limited partnerships are frequently used in real estate and entertainment-related transactions.

The limited partnership did not exist at Common Law. Like a general partnership, however, a limited partnership may govern its affairs according to a limited partnership agreement. Such an agreement, however, will be subject to applicable state law. States have for the most part relied on the Uniform Limited Partnership Act in adopting their limited partnership legislation. The Uniform Limited Partnership Act was revised in 1976 and 1985. Accordingly, a few states have retained the old uniform act, and other states have relied on either revision to the uniform act or on both revisions to the uniform act.

A limited partnership must have one or more general partners who manage the business and who are personally liable for partnership debts. Although one partner may be both a limited and a general partner, at all times there must be at least two different partners in a limited partnership. A limited partner may lose protection against personal liability if she or he participates in the management and control of the partnership, contributes services to the partnership, acts as a general partner, or knowingly allows her or his name to be used in partnership business. However, "safe harbors" exist in which a limited partner will not be found to have participated in the "control" of the partnership business. Safe harbors include consulting with the general partner with respect to partnership business, being a contractor or employee of a general partner, or winding up the limited partnership. If a limited partner is engaged solely in one of the activities defined as a safe harbor, then he or she is not considered a general partner with the accompanying potential liability.

Except where a conflict exists, the law of general partnerships applies equally to limited partnerships. Unlike general partnerships, however, limited partnerships must file a certificate with the appropriate state authority to form and carry on as a limited partnership. Generally, a certificate of limited partnership includes the limited partnership's name, the character of the limited partnership's business, and the names and addresses of general partners and limited partners. In addition, and because the limited partnership has a set term of duration, the certificate must state the date on which the limited partnership will dissolve. The contents of the certificate, however, will vary from state to state, depending on which uniform limited partnership act the state has adopted.

Further readings

Gow, Niel. 2000. A Practical Treatise on the Law of Partnership. Buffalo, N.Y.: W.S. Hein.

Gregory, William A. 2001. The Law of Agency and Partnership. 3d ed. St. Paul, Minn.: West Group.

Hamilton, Robert W., and Jonathan R. Macey. 2003. Cases and Materials on Corporations, Including Partnerships and Limited Liability Companies. 8th ed. St. Paul, Minn.: West Group.

Hynes, J. Dennis. 2001. Agency, Partnership, and the LLC in a Nutshell. 2d ed. St. Paul, Minn.: West Group.

Moye, John E., ed. 1999. The Law of Business Organizations. 5th ed. Albany, N.Y.: West Legal Studies.

Partnerships, LLCs, and LLPs: Uniform Acts, Taxation, Drafting, Securities, and Bankruptcy. 12th ed. Vol. 1. 1996. Philadelphia: American Law Institute–American Bar Association Committee on Continuing Professional Education.

Cross-references

Joint and Several Liability; Limited Liability Partnership.

partnership

n. a business enterprise entered into for profit which is owned by more than one person each of which is a "partner." A partnership may be created by a formal written agreement, but may be based on an oral agreement or just a handshake. Each partner invests a certain amount (money, assets and/or effort) which establishes an agreed-upon percentage of ownership, is responsible for all the debts and contracts of the partnership even though another partner created the debt or entered into the contract, has a share in management decisions, and shares in profits and losses according to the percentage of the total investment. Often a partnership agreement may provide for certain division of management, shares of investment, profit, and/or rights to buy out a partner upon leaving the partnership or death. Each partner owes the other partners a duty of full disclosure of information which affects the business and cannot commandeer for himself/herself business opportunities which rightfully belong to the partnership. A partnership which does business under a trade name must file with the county or state a certificate of "doing business under a fictitious name" which gives notice to the public of the names of partners and the business address. A "limited partnership" limits the responsibility for debts beyond the investment to the managing "general partners." The investing "limited partners" cannot participate in management and are limited to specific percentages of profit. A partnership differs from a "joint venture," which involves more than one investor for only a specific short-term project and prompt division of profits. Partnerships are traditionally the most fragile of business arrangements and are often dissolved and subject to disputes. But several million exist in the United States and, ironically, they are the favorite business entity for law firms. (See: partner, general partner, silent partner)

partnership

noun alliance, association, coalition, commination, concord, confederacy, confederation, conjunction, connection, consociation, consortio, consortium, cooperation, cooperative society, copartnership, federation, fellowship, firm, guild, joint interest, league, legal entity, mutual commany, participation, pool, societas, sodality, syndicate
Associated concepts: commercial partnership, corporation, dissolution of partnership, general parttership, joint enterprise, joint venture, limited partnership, partnership agreement, partnership assets, partnership at will, partnership debts, partnership for a single transaction, partnership property, professional partnership, silent partter, special partnership, voluntary association
Foreign phrases: Nemo debet in communione invitus teneri.No one should be retained in a partnership against his will. Si alicujus rei societas sit et finis negotio imposiius est, finitus societas. If there is a partnership in any matter, and the business is concluded, the partnership is ended.
See also: affiliation, association, coaction, coalition, community, company, connection, consortium, contribution, cooperative, enterprise, firm, integration, league, matrimony, merger, pool, sodality, syndicate

partnership

an association of two or more persons carrying on business in common with a view to profit. The main principles of the law of partnership are of considerable vintage and were consolidated in the Partnership Act 1890, an Act that, for the most part, applies equally to England and Scotland. Except in the case of a limited partnership, formed under the Limited Partnerships Act 1907 or under the Limited Liability Partnerships Act 2000, each partner is liable to the full extent of his property for the whole debts of the partnership firm should the firm be unable to meet them. Every partner must account to the firm for any benefit derived by him without the consent of the other partners from any transaction concerning the partnership or from any use by him of the partnership property, name or business connections. This also applies to transactions after the partnership has been dissolved by the death of a partner and before its affairs have been completely wound up. A partnership is essentially a contract between those involved, and the rights and obligations of the partners are governed by the terms of the agreement between them. Under English law, a partnership does not have a legal personality separate from its members. In Scotland it does, so a partnership can own property, although the title to heritable property is usually taken in the name of the partners or some of them as trustees for the firm. The sharing of profits and losses is usually governed by the articles of partnership or partnership agreements. In the absence of express or implied agreement, partners contribute equally towards losses, whether of capital or otherwise, sustained by the firm. Where the profits are not shared equally, the losses are, in the absence of agreement, borne in the same proportion as the profits are shared, regardless of whether one partner has put up more capital than others. An attempt by a partner to pledge the firm's credit for a purpose apparently not connected with its ordinary business will not bind the firm unless he has been especially authorized by the other partners. A partner has no implied authority to execute deeds on behalf of his firm; equally, the implied authority does not extend to acts not usually incidental to the scope of the partnership business. Partners in a firm are jointly and severally liable for any breach of trust committed by one partner, in which they were implicated. Persons other than partners may have authority to deal with third parties on behalf of the firm; however, such persons have no implied mandate. Any act or instrument relating to the business of the firm, done or executed in the firm's name, or in any other manner, showing an intention to bind the firm, by any person authorized thereto (whether a partner or not) is binding on the firm and on each and every partner. Provisions in articles of partnership or deeds of dissolution frequently provide that the partners continuing the firm's activities are to indemnify the outgoing partner against existing partnership liabilities. Often the articles will confer on continuing partners an option to purchase the interest of an outgoing partner; if that option is exercised, the outgoing partner is not entitled to any further share of profits. If there is no such option (or if it has not been exercised), the outgoing partner has the option of taking either interest at 5 per cent per annum on the value of his share or on such share or profit as the court may find attributable to the use of such share. Articles often contain provisions prohibiting an outgoing partner from carrying on a similar trade or profession within specified limits of time and distance, although the limitations must be reasonable to be enforced. Subject to any agreement in the articles of partnership, the following may cause a partnership to be dissolved:
  1. (1) notice;
  2. (2) elapse of fixed time as provided for in the partnership articles;
  3. (3) where the partnership is formed for a particular purpose or adventure, the fulfilment of that purpose or completion of the adventure;
  4. (4) bankruptcy of a partner;
  5. (5) expulsion of a partner;
  6. (6) by order of the court.

PARTNERSHIP, contracts. An agreement between two or more persons, for joining together their money, goods, labor and skill, or either or all of them, for the purpose of advancing fair trade, and of dividing the profits and losses arising from it, proportionably or otherwise, between them. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1435; Watson on Partn. 1; Gow on Partn. 2; see Civ. Code of Lo. art. 2772; Code Civ. art. 1832; Forbes. Inst. of Scotch Law, part 2, B. 3, s. 3, p. 184; edit. Edin. 1722, 12mo.; Dolmat, Civ. Law, vol. 1, p. 85; 9. John. R. 488; Puffend. B. 5, c. 8; 2 H. Bl. 246; 1 H. Bl. 37; Ersk. Inst. B. 3, t. 3, Sec. 18; Tapia, Elementos de Jurisp. Mercantil, p. 86; 5 Duv. Dr. Civ. Fr. tit. 9, c. 1, n, 17; 4 Pard. Dr. Com. n. 966; 2 Bell's Com. 611, 5th ed.; Aso & Mann. Inst. B. 2, tit.
     1. Sometimes partnership signifies a moral being composed of the reunion of all the partners. 4 Pard. n. 966. As a partnership has a separate existence as a person, it becomes liable to fulfill all its engagements, and the partners are individually bound and responsible only on its default, as sureties. 2 Bell's Comm. B. 6, c. 1, n. 4, p. 619, 5th ed.
     2. Partnerships will be considered, 1st. In respect to their character and extent, as they regard property. 2d. With relation to the number and character of parties. 3d. As they are divided by the French code. 4th. As to their creation. 5th. As to their object. 6th. As to their duration. 7th. As to their dissolution. 8th. As to partnerships in Louisiana.
     3.-Sec. 1. In respect to their character and extent, as they regard property, partnerships maybe divided into three classes, namely: universal partnerships; general partnerships; and limited or special partnerships. 1. A universal partnership is one where the parties agree to bring into the firm all their property, real, personal and mixed, and to employ all their skill, labor, and services, in the trade, or business, for their common benefit. This, kind of partnership is perhaps unknown in the United States. 5 Mason, R. 176.
     4.-2. General partnerships are properly such, where the parties carry on all their trade and business for their joint benefit and profit; and it is not material whether the capital stock be limited or not, or the contributions of the partners be equal or unequal. Cowp. 814. The game appellation is given to a partnership where the parties are engaged in one branch of trade only.
     5.-3. Special partnerships, are those formed for a special or particular branch of business, as contradistinguished from the general business or employment of the parties, or of one of them. When they extend to a single transaction or adventure only, such as the purchase and sale of a particular parcel of goods, they are more commonly called limited partnerships. The appellation is however given to both classes of cases indiscriminately. Story, Partn. Sec. 75
     6.-Sec. 2. When considered in relation to the number and character of the parties, partnerships are divided into private partnerships and public companies. 1. Private partnerships are those which consist of two or more partners for some private undertaking, trade, or business.
     7.-Sec. 2. Public companies are those where a greater number of persons are concerned, and the stock is divided into a considerable number of shares, the object embracing generally public as well as private interests. This term is, however, perhaps loosely applied, as these companies have for the most part the character of private associations. They are either incorporated or not. The incorporated are to be governed by the rules established in their respective charters. See Corporation. The unincorporated are in general subject, to all the regulations of a common private partnership.
     8.-Sec. 3. In the French law, partnerships are divided into three kinds, namely: 1. Partnerships under a collective name, that is, where the name of the firm contains the names of all or some of the partners.
     9.-2. Partnerships en commandite or in commendam; these are limited partnerships, where one or more persons are general partners, and are jointly and severally responsible with all their estates, and one or, more other persons who furnish a part or the whole of the capital, who are liable only to the extent of the capital they have furnished. The business is carried on in, the name of the general partners. This species of partnership, with some modifications, has been adopted in several of the states of the American union. 3 Kent, Com. 34, 4th ed.; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1473, et seq.
    10.-3. Anonymous partnerships are those in which all the partners are engaged in the business, there is no social name or firm, but a name designating the object of the association. The business is managed by syndics or directors. Vide Poth. de Societe, h.t.; 5, Duv. Dr. Civ., Fr. h.t.; Pardes. Dr: Com. h.t.; Code de Com. h.t.; Merl. Repert. h.t. In Louisiana a similar division has been made. Civ. Code of Lo. h.t.
    11.-Sec. 4. Partnerships are created by mere act of the parties; and in this they differ from, corporations which require the sanction of public authority, either express or implied. Aug. & Ames on Corp. 23. The consent of the parties may be testified, either in express terms, as by articles of partnership, or positive agreement; or the assent may be tacit, and to be implied solely from the act of the parties. An implied or presumptive assent has equal operation with one that is express and determined. And it may be laid down as a general and undeniable proposition, that persons having a mutual interest in the profits and loss of any business, or particular branch of business, carried on by them, or persons appearing ostensibly to the world as joint traders, are to be recognized and treated as partners, whatever may be the nature of the agreement under which they act, or whatever motive or inducement may prompt them to such an exhibition. 1 Dall. 269.
    12. A community of property does not of itself create a partnership, however that property may be acquired, whether by purchase, donation, accession, inheritance or prescription. Civ. Code of Louis. art. 2777. Hence joint tenants or tenants in common of lands, goods, or chattels, under devises or bequests in last wills or testaments, and deeds or donations inter vivos, and inheritances or successions, are not partners. Story, Partn. Sec. 3.
    13. Joint owners of ships are not, in consequence of such ownership, to be considered as partners. Abbot on Ship. 68; 3. Kent, Com. 25, 4th ed.; 15 Wend. 187; and see Poth. De Societe, n. 2; 4 Pard. Dr. Com. n. 969; 17 Dur. Dr. Fr. n. 320; 5 Duv. Dr. Civ. Fr. n. 33.
    14.-The free and personal choice of the contracting parties is so essentially necessary to the constituting of a partnership, that even executors and representatives of deceased partners do not, in their representative capacity, succeed to the state and condition of partners; 2 Ves. sen. 34; Wats. on Partn. 6; although a community of interest necessarily exists between them and the surviving partners, until the affairs of the partnership are wound up. 11 Ves. 3. When there is a positive agreement at the commencement of the partnership, that the personal representative or heir of a partner shall succeed him in the partnership, the obligation will be considered valid. Coll. on part. B. 1; ch. 1, Sec. 11; Story, Partn. Sec. 5.
    15.-Sec. 5. The object of the partnership must be legal. All partnerships, therefore, which are formed for any purpose forbidden by law or good morals, are null and void. But all the partners in such a partnership are jointly liable to third persons who may contract with them without a knowledge of the illegal or immoral object of the partnership. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 2775; 5 B. & A. 341 2 B. & P. 371; 3 T. R. 454; Poth. Oblig. by Evans, vol. 2, page 3; Gow on Partn. 8; Wats. Partn. 131. Partnerships are not confined to mere commercial trade or business; but generally extend to, manufactures and, to all other lawful occupations and employments, or to professional or other business. They may extend to all the business of the parties; to a single branch of such business; to a single adventure; or to a single thing. But there cannot lawfully be a partnership in a mere, personal office, especially when it is of a public nature, requiring the personal confidence in the skill and integrity of the officer. Story, Partn. Sec. 81; Colly. Partn. 31.
    16.-Sec. 6. Partnerships may be formed to last for life, or for a specific period of time; they may be conditional or indefinite in their duration, or for a single adventure or dealing; this depends altogether on the will of the parties. The period of duration is either expressed or implied, but the law will not presume that it shall last beyond life. 1 Swanst. 521; 1 J. Wils. R., 181. When a particular term is fixed, it is presumed to endure until the period has elapsed; when no term is fixed, it is presumed to endure for the life of the parties, unless previously dissolved, by the acts of one of them, by mutual consent, or by operation of law. Story, Partn. Sec. 84. When no time is limited for the duration of a general trading partnership, it is a partnership at will, and may be dissolved at any time at the pleasure of any one or more of the partners.
    17.-Sec. 7. A partnership may be dissolved in several ways: when the partnership is formed for a single dealing or transaction, it follows that it is at an end so soon as the dealing or transaction in which the partners jointly engaged is completed. Gow on Partn. 268; Inst. Lib. 3, tit., 26, s. 6.
    18. Where a general partnership is formed, either for a definite, or an indefinite period of time, the causes which may operate a destruction of it, are various. In the case of a partnership limited as to its duration, it may, in the intermediate time, before the restricted period of its termination arrives, be dissolved either by the death, the confirmed insanity, the bankruptcy of all or one of the partners, or it may endure the stipulated period, and expire with the effluxion of time; but where the partnership is unlimited as to its existence, although in the instances of death or bankruptcy, it is determined, yet if they do not intervene, any partner may withdraw himself from it whenever he thinks proper. Code, lib. 4, t. 37, 1, 5.
    19. Besides the causes above stated for a dissolution, a partnership, limited or unlimited as to its duration, may be dissolved by the decree of a court of equity, where the conduct of some or all of the partners has been such as not to carry on the trade or undertaking on the terms stipulated; Gow on Partn. 269; or by the involuntary or compulsory, sale or transfer of the partnership interest of any one of the partners. 17 John. R. 525.
    20. In New York, it has been held that there is no such thing as an indissoluble partnership, and that, therefore, any partner may withdraw at any time; and by that act the partnership will be solved; the other party having his action against the withdrawing partner upon his covenant to continue the partnership; 19 Johns. R. 538. This doctrine is not in accordance with the English law. Indeed it is even doubtful in New York. Story, Eq. Jur. Sec. 668; Story, Partn. Sec. 275; 3 Kent Com. 61, 4th ed.; 1 Hoffm. Ch. R. 534. See Gow on Partn. 803, 305, and 4 Wash. C. C. R. 232.
    21. It may also be dissolved by the extinction of the thing or object of the partnership; or by the agreement of the parties. See Civ. Code of Louis. art. 2847 Code Civ. B. 3, fit. 9, c 4 art. 1865 to 1872; 2 Bell's Com. 631 to 6414, 6th ed. See Dissolution.
    22. The effect of the dissolution of the partnership is to disable any one of the partners from contracting new obligations or engagements on account of the firm. 1 Pet., R. 351; 3 McCord, 378; 4 Munf. 215; 2 John., 300; 5 Mason, 56; Harper, R. 470; 4 John. 224; 1 McCord, 338; 6 Cowen, 701. But notwithstanding the dissolution there remain, with each of the partners, certain powers, rights, duties, authorities, and relations between them, which are indispensable to the complete arrangement and final settlement of the affairs of the firm. The partnership must, therefore, subsist for many purposes, notwithstanding the dissolution. Among these are, 1st. The completion of an the unperformed engagements of the partnership. 2d. The conversion of all the property, means and assets of the partnership, existing at the time of the dissolution, for the benefit of those who, were partners, according to their respective shares. 3d. The application of the partnership funds, to, the liquidation of the partnership debts. Story, Partn. Sec. 324.
    23.-Sec. 3. By the laws of Louisiana, partnerships are divided, as to their object, into commercial partnerships and ordinary partnerships Commercial partnerships are such as are formed, 1. For the purchase of any personal property, and the sale thereof, either in the same state or changed by manufacture. 2. For buying and selling any personal property whatsoever, as factors or brokers. 3. For carrying personal property for hire, in ships or other vessels. Civ. Code of Lo. art., 2796.
    24. Ordinary partnerships are, such as are not commercial; they are divided into universal or particular partnerships. Id. art. 2797.
    25. Universal partnership is a contract by which the parties agree to make a common stock of all the property they respectively possess; they may extend it to all the property real and personal, or restrict it to personal only; they may, as, in other partnerships, agree that the property itself shall be common stock, or that the fruits only shall be such; but property which may accrue to one of the parties, after entering into the partnership, by donation, succession, or legacy, does not become common stock, and any stipulation to that effect, previous to the obtaining the property aforesaid, is void. Code Civ. of Lo.art. 2800.
    26. Particular partnerships are such as are formed for any business not of a commercial nature. Id. art. 2806. The business of this partnership must be conducted in the name of all the persons concerned, unless a firm is adopted by the articles of partnership reduced to writing, and recorded as is prescribed with respect to partnerships in commendam. Id. art 2808.
    27. There is also a species of partnership which may be incorporated with either of the other kinds, called partnership in commendam, or limited partnership. Id. art. 799. Partnership in commendam is formed by a contract, by which one person or partnership agrees to furnish another person or partnership a certain amount, either in property or money, to be employed by the person or partnership whom it is furnished, in his or their own name or firm, on condition of receiving a share in the profits, in the proportion determined by the contract, and of being liable to losses and expenses to the amount furnished, and no more. Id. art. 2810.
    28. Every species of partnership may receive such partners. It is therefore a modification of which the several kinds of partnerships are susceptible, rather than a separate division of partnerships. Vide Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.: Firm.

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