peremptory challenge

(redirected from Peremptory strike)
Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia.

Peremptory Challenge

The right to challenge a juror without assigning, or being required to assign, a reason for the challenge.During the selection of a jury, both parties to the proceeding may challenge prospective jurors for a lack of impartiality, known as a challenge for cause. A party may challenge an unlimited number of prospective jurors for cause. Parties also may exercise a limited number of peremptory challenges. These challenges permit a party to remove a prospective juror without giving a reason for the removal.

Peremptory challenges provide a more impartial and better qualified jury. Peremptory challenges allow an attorney to reject a potential juror for real or imagined partiality that would be difficult to demonstrate under the challenge for cause category. These challenges, however, have become more difficult to exercise because the U.S. Supreme Court has forbidden peremptory strikes based on race or gender.

Parties do not have a federal constitutional right to exercise peremptory challenges. Peremptory challenges are granted by statute or by case law. The number of challenges is usually determined by statute, but some jurisdictions allow the trial court to grant additional peremptory challenges. In federal court each side is entitled to three peremptory challenges. If more than two parties are involved in the proceeding, the court may either grant additional challenges or restrict the parties to the minimum number of challenges.

Peremptory challenges came under legal attack in the 1980s. Critics claimed that white prosecutors used their peremptory challenges to remove African Americans from the jury when the criminal defendant was also African American because the prosecutors thought that the potential jurors would be sympathetic to a member of their own race. This constituted racial discrimination and a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause.

The U.S. Supreme Court, in Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79, 106 S. Ct. 1712, 90 L. Ed. 2d 69 (1986), prohibited prosecutors from excluding prospective jurors on the basis of race. Under the Batson test, a defendant may object to a prosecutor's peremptory challenge. The prosecutor then must "come forward with a neutral explanation for challenging black jurors." If the prosecutor cannot offer a neutral explanation, the court will not excuse the juror.

The Court extended this holding in criminal proceedings in two later cases. In Powers v. Ohio, 499 U.S. 400, 111 S. Ct. 1364, 113 L. Ed. 2d 411 (1991), the Court broadened the Batson rule by stating that a defendant need not be of the same race as the excluded juror in order to successfully challenge the juror's exclusion. In Georgia v. McCollum, 505 U.S. 42, 112 S. Ct. 2348, 120 L. Ed. 2d 33 (1992), the Court held that the defense's exercise of peremptory challenges to strike African American jurors on the basis of their race was equally forbidden. Previously, the court had ruled in Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Co., 500 U.S. 614, 111 S. Ct. 2077, 114 L. Ed. 2d 660 (1991), that in civil trials a private party could not exclude prospective jurors on account of their race by using peremptory challenges. This series of decisions makes any racial exclusion in jury selection constitutionally suspect.

The Supreme Court has also forbidden peremptory challenges based on gender. In J. E. B. v. Alabama, 511 U.S. 127, 114 S. Ct. 1419, 128 L. Ed. 2d 89 (1994), the Court ruled that striking jurors on the basis of gender serves to perpetuate stereotypes that are prejudicial and based on historical discrimination. No overriding State Interest justified peremptory challenges on the basis of gender. Permitting gender-based strikes could also have undermined the Batson holding, because gender might be used as an excuse for racial discrimination.

In an extension of Batson, the Supreme Court of Connecticut ruled that the Equal Protection Clause barred the prosecutor from striking prospective jurors based on their religious affiliation. The court, in State v. Hodge, 726 A.2d 531 (Conn.1999), distinguished religious beliefs and religious affiliations. It held that litigants could strike prospective jurors whose religious beliefs would prevent them from performing their duties as jurors.

Further readings

Beck, Cobrun R. 1998."The Current State of the Peremptory Challenge." William and Mary Law Review 39 (February).

Fahey, William F. 1996. "Peremptory Challenges." Federal Lawyer 43 (October).

Hoffman, Morris B. 1997. "Peremptory Challenges Should Be Abolished: A Trial Judge's Perspective." University of Chicago Law Review 64 (summer).

Schwartz, Edward P., and Warren F. Schwartz. 1996. "The Challenge of Peremptory Challenges." Journal of Law, Economics & Organization 12 (October).


Case Law; Federal Courts; Jurisdiction; Jury; Trial.

peremptory challenge

n. the right of the plaintiff and the defendant in a jury trial to have a juror dismissed before trial without stating a reason. This challenge is distinguished from a "challenge for cause" (reason) based on the potential juror admitting bias, acquaintanceship with one of the parties or their attorney, personal knowledge about the facts, or some other basis for believing he/she might not be impartial. The number of peremptory challenges for each side will differ based on state law, the number of parties to a case, and whether it is a civil or criminal trial. The usual phraseology used by lawyers exercising the challenge is "Juror number seven may be excused." (See: jury, challenge for cause, voir dire)

peremptory challenge

noun absolute challenge, arbitrary challenge, axiomatic challenge, certain challenge, challenge as of right, challenge within prerogative, concluuive challenge, decision challenge, discretionary challenge, final determining challenge, guaranteed challenge, objeccion as of right, positive challenge, rejection as of right, right to eliminate jurors, self-determined challenge, unperrtive challenge, unrestricted challenge
Associated concepts: challenge for cause

peremptory challenge

the right to challenge jurors without having to give a reason or show cause. It was abolished in England and Wales by the Criminal Justice Act 1988 and in Scotland by the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 1995.
References in periodicals archive ?
framework for determining whether a peremptory strike had been exercised
that peremptory strikes are often used to exclude black prospective
The state judge demanded a "plausible reason that is nonracial, non-gender, nonreligious, non-body language," for every peremptory strike used during jury selection.
In fact, if a case is weak on evidence, as was Imelda Marcos and Adnan Khashoggi's in the summer of 1990, a lawyer can use peremptory strikes to choose jurors who will decide on the basis of just about anything but the evidence.
As one trial lawyer admitted, once the burden shifts to him to justify a peremptory strike, "then you are tempted to engage in that thing which is absolutely horrible: lying in a courtroom.
279) Because the court affirmed the trial court's "finding that the government's strikes were based on the jurors' heightened religious involvement rather than their religious affiliation, [it did not] reach the issue of whether a peremptory strike based solely on religious affiliations would be unconstitutional.
Even if you prevail at trial, the possibility exists that you will have to do it all over again if a peremptory strike objection was not properly handled.
1997) ("The substantial rights of a party are not affected or impaired when a defendant chooses to exercise a single peremptory strike to correct a circuit court error.
In this note, I will not trace the history of the peremptory strike or the Supreme Court's road to J.
24) Comparing peremptory strike case law with that of selective prosecutions, another legal niche that seeks to harmonize arbitrary discretion with equal protection principles, however, suggests exactly the opposite reading.
Where a prosecutor's race-neutral explanation for a strike cannot be confirmed or rejected on the basis of the trial record, and where the trial court failed to make the required findings in the course of resolving a Batson objection to a peremptory strike, the Fifth and Eleventh Circuits have ordered new trials, as have several state appellate courts and federal district courts ruling on habeas petitions.
Even assuming that the exercise of a peremptory strike on the basis of religious affiliation is unconstitutional, the exercise of a strike based on religious beliefs is not.