2007) of the Thamnophilidae including Pithys, Gymnopithys, Rhegmatorhina, Phlegopsis, Phaenostictus, and the closely related genus Willisomis (Brumfield et al.
1, 2) include: (1) the Phaenostictus clade; (2) the Pithys clade; (3) the Willisornis clade; (4) the Phlegopsis clade that includes three subclades: (4a) the erythroptera clade; (4b) the borbae clade; and (4c) the nigromaculata clade; and (5) the Gymnopithys/Rhegmatorhina clade that also include three subclades: (5a) the rufigula clade containing Gymnopithys leucaspis and G.
The smaller sample (four nests) of Pithys albifrons were all placed atop live vegetation (two atop small palms, one in sedge, and one in a clump of tuberous plants).
Pithys albifrons: Ecuador: Pastaza; Coconaco, 300 m elevation (LSUMZ 83237); Peru: Amazonas; Huampami, ~215 m elevation (LSUMZ 84917), Chiriaco, ~320 m elevation (LSUMZ 78514, 88018, 88019, 88022); Loreto; Libertad, S bank of Rio Napo, 80 km N of Iquitos, 120 m elevation (LSUMZ 110094, 110096, 110097, 110098, 110099, 110100, 110102, 110103, 110104, 110105); 157 km by river NNE of Iquitos, N of Rio Napo, 110 m elevation (LSUMZ 110106, 110109, 110112, 110113).
We collected 13 specimens of Pithys castaneus during our visit to the Rio Morona site.