The scientific literature has always indicated there were only three types of plant roots
," says Zobel, a plant geneticist with the Agricultural Research Service at Ithaca, New York.
It does not allow rain or irrigation water to penetrate to plant roots
In the arbuscular mycorrhizal system, though, plant roots
can detect which fungus threads are providing an abundance of a mineral and in turn reward them with extra nutrients in the form of plant-produced carbon.
Maximizing water uptake in plant roots
requires balancing two types of flow throughout the network.
Fiscus EL (1975) The interaction between osmotic and pressure-induced water flow in plant root
The most common mycorrhizal fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, colonize most crop plant roots
and enhance nutrient uptake, mainly phosphorus.
However, it seems that the decrease in transpiration, which is proportional to water uptake by the plant root
, is less sensitive to decreasing water potential at the soil-root interface.
I find that those made of coir fibre or recycled wool are especially good and help to provide extra insulation for the compost and plant roots
Efflux pumps are tiny proteins embedded in the plant root
cells' outer membranes," says Welch.
They are produced and used by plant roots
to extract mineral nutrients from the soil.
Whether confined in a container or present in the yard, soil to be used for the successful growing of plants is composed of 45 percent mineral matter (sand, silt and clay) and 5 percent organic matter (defined as anything currently or previously alive such as compost, peat moss, plant roots
, earthworms, ants, bacteria, and fungi).
These special fungi live in symbiosis with plant roots
, extracting metabolites they require in exchange for soil minerals, which they absorb.