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If the gap between the spark terminals are quite less, population inversion can't build up because of the inadequate excitation of air molecules, on the other hand, for large gap separation between the terminals of spark gap, build huge amount of voltage that surpassed the critical limit of dielectric, therefore constructed prototype nitrogen execution may terminate.
In the resonant-phonon design scheme, the population inversion is ensured by selectively injecting electrons through resonant tunnelling into the upper state of the laser transition [35].
The result is a population inversion in which there are more particles in the higher-energy state than in the ground state.

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