were impressed with the French Chassepot and issued numbers of captured carbines to their mounted troops as the Chassepot-Karabiner.
The decision changed history because the Prussians
would be only eight miles east of Mont St.
Throughout the day, the main French attacks lacked coordination, and by 6pm -- when Wellington's centre was dangerously weak -- Napoleon was too preoccupied with the Prussian
threat to exploit the breakthrough.
It gave the Duke of Wellington's army extra hours as his Prussian
allies, fresh from defeat, regrouped and raced towards their position on a ridge near Waterloo.
At last the Prussians
arrive and the Allied army advances.
It was during this war that, in 1870, Prussian
Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck orchestrated the unification of the German states.
The French had the finest infantry rifle in the world at the time, a huge regular army and seasoned general who would roll over the Prussians
and settle affairs in a matter of months, if not weeks.
Instead, they adopted new tactics and dispersed across the countryside, forcing the Prussians
to turn their regular army into an occupying force.
Here he follows his two-volume history of the Austro-Prussian
War with an account the battle of Koniggratz, a signal triumph for the Prussians
, the first battle between the two powers, and a demonstration of the changes that had come about in warfare.
Consequently, the evolving relationship between military culture and German society in the nineteenth century looms paramount: from the volunteers in 1814, to the popular criticism of standing armies in the 1840, to the advocacy of civil militias in 1848, to the critical reversal in 1871, when Prussians
accepted military values as a constituent element of civil society.
But the percentage figure is misleading, Clark notes, as only 81,000 members of Fredrick's army were native Prussians
, which makes the figure a more normal 1.
Napoleon's ability to use diplomatic overtures towards Prussia to paralyze the decision-making process in Berlin was one part of his campaign; the well-designed rapid marches across central Germany which placed the French armies much closer to Berlin sooner than the Prussians
anticipated was part of the operational art.