I use all three terms interchangeably to call attention to the difficulty of pinning down racial identity
Scholarship has taken into account sociocultural factors, such as racial identity
and ethnic identity, to help elucidate the variation in mental health outcomes among different racial and ethnic groups (Gilbert, So, Russell, & Wessel, 2006).
Keywords: African American women, occupational stress, racial identity
, mentoring, health care
has been shown to influence one's self-esteem, quality of life, emotional well-being, and feelings toward education (Cokley, 2007; Sue & Sue, 2008).
refers to "a sense of group or collective identity based on one's perception that he or she shares a common heritage with a particular racial group" (Helms, 1993, p.
African Americans who reported greater relevance of racial identity
perceived more racism, while European Americans who reported greater relevance of racial identity
perceived less racism.
Similar to the absence of a formal and reliable counting system to capture the prevalence of transracial adoptions, theories about racial identity
development for transracially adopted people have not captured the whole of the adopted person's experience.
Reconstructing Racial Identity
and the African Past in the Dominican Republic joins a handful of other English-language texts seeking to make sense of Dominicans' relationship to blackness and their African heritage.
theory is a powerful framework through which these relationships may be examined more closely.
Specifically, we focus on peer pressures and racial identity
, setting forth the proposition that recruitment and retention will be more effective when these areas are considered and addressed.
Kimberly Simmons in Reconstructing Racial Identity
and the African Past in the Dominican Republic conceptualizes' this accusation of "black denial" and provides readers with a fresh and intellectual approach as to how Dominicans define "blackness" and how they come to terms with their African ancestry.
In this study, a series of simultaneous multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between racial identity
development and college adjustment for a sample of 76 Choctaw community college students in the South.