Recuperatores

RECUPERATORES, Roman civil law. A species of judges originally established, it is supposed, to decide controversies between Roman citizens and strangers, concerning the right to the possession of property requiring speedy remedy; but gradually extended to questions which might be brought before ordinary judges. After this enlargement of their powers, the difference between them and judges, it is supposed, was simply this: If the praetor named three judges he called them recuperatores; if one, he called him judex. But opinions on this subject are very various. (Colman De Romano judicio recuperatorio,) Cicero's oration pro Coecin, 1, 3, was addressed to Recuperators.

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14 (quam PERSONAM iam ex cotidiana uita cognoscitis, recuperaTORES, mulieRVM adsentaTORIS, cogniTORIS uiduaRVM, defenSORIS nimium litigiosi, .
Agotada la fase in iure ante el pretor, se dirigia la actuacion a los recuperatores quienes adelantaban la fase de juzgamiento o iudicem en la cual resultaba condenado el causante de la lesion a una condena que, en el derecho clasico, consistia en una suma de dinero determinada segun lo bonum et aequm.
Propiamente debio ser un proceso llevado ante el llamado Tribunal de los recuperatores, pero Plauto lo ofrece como un arbitraje en la escena cuarta del acto cuarto.
The nature of this material suggests that both relationships were the subject of slanderous treatment, as indeed Suetonius' heavy emphasis on the social status of each indicates: (24) Flavia Domitilla, daughter of Flavius Liberalis, was the delicata of a provincial eques Statilius Capella, had once enjoyed Latin status but was then declared to be freeborn and a Roman citizen by the recuperatores, an essential precondition for Vespasian to have contracted a legal marriage with her.
when appealed to by representatives of the two Spanish provinciae, providing for boards of five recuperatores to hear the claims for restoration of extorted monies and appointing patrons for the provincials.
In a series of articles spanning nearly two decades he has examined extortion laws in general (ZRG 98 [1981] 162-212), procedures used under first-century laws of that type (ZPE 20 [1976] 207-14), the use of recuperatores (RHD 68 [1990] 1-11), and criminal courts, such as the quaestiones de sicariis et veneficis (Hermes 106 [1978] 125-38).
brought before the recuperatores (29) by her father Flavius Liberalis,
interesting to note that the recuperatores to whom Liberalis brought the
ingenua (a freeborn woman) and a Roman citizen by the recuperatores does