Others attribute the acquisition of conditioned reinforcers
to stimulus-stimulus pairings, in which the reinforcing stimuli are not response dependent or discriminative stimuli (Gollub, 1970).
The success of reinforcement interventions, however, largely depends on the identification of preferred stimuli that function effectively as reinforcers
(Walker et al.
During the consenting process, suggestions for reinforcers
were gathered from parents and teachers.
If this technique is ineffective, it may be that the student needs stronger reinforcers
Responses per reinforcer
(both free and FR reinforcers
) and a ratio of mean wait time divided by the time to complete an FR25 were used as measures of behavioral "efficiency.
The participants' preferred reinforcers
(edibles) were placed in full view on the table in front of them.
In terms of formal characteristics reinforcers
can be divided into (1) tangible reinforcers
, that is, those things that can be touched, seen, smelled, and manipulated; (2) edible reinforcers
, that is, anything that can be eaten; (3) activity reinforcers
, such as playing games by oneself or with others, reading, attending a concert, playing with friends, engaging in artistic endeavors, and so forth; (4) social reinforcers
, such as physical contacts like hugs and pats, proximity to others, attending, and verbal stimuli like praise.
A large body of research describing valid and reliable techniques to effectively determine reinforcers
does exist for other populations such as the developmentally disabled (Hagopian et al.
This new type of learning, identified as the acquisition of conditioned reinforcers
by observation, can be defined as the acquisition of reinforcing properties of previously neutral stimuli as a function of observation (Greer et al.
, including praise, smiles, and thumbs-up gestures, are the easiest for teachers to use.
Bruce Goldberg maintains all hypnosis is really self-hypnosis: he's worked with over 14,000 patients since 1974 and in the revised edition of Self Hypnosis: Easy Ways To Hypnotize Your Problems Away he includes a guided set of exercises on CD as reinforcers
Chapters include how to deliver motivational incentives, making the transition from concrete to abstract reinforcers
, cultivating independence and self-management skills, token systems as a useful tool for sustaining interest, and much more.