dna

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Related to Repetitive DNA: satellite DNA

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Researchers used microsatellite markers--short, repetitive DNA sequences used as genetic markers to track inheritance--to screen the genome of each family.
A highly conserved repetitive DNA sequence, (TTAGGG)n, present at the telomeres of human chromosomes.
The resulting defect in DNA repair causes substantial variability in the length of known segments of repetitive DNA, a phenomenon called microsatellite instability.
Telomeres are a region of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes, which protects the end of the chromosome from degradation and fusion.
The insertion of hundreds of thousands of repetitive DNA elements each at the exact same location really needs to be addressed.
To assess the presence or absence of a B2 integration in orthologous loci, primer sets were designed that flank the B2 element insertions (Figure la) utilizing PrimerSelect from the Lasergene suite of software tools (DNASTAR, Inc), and BLAST searches were performed to verify lack of homology of the primers to repetitive DNA.
Comparison of various repetitive DNA elements as genetic markers for strain differentiation and epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
In addition, the region is rich in repetitive DNA with several Alu repeats which could facilitate homologous recombination with loci throughout the genome.
Analysis of a repetitive DNA sequence from Bordetella pertussis and its application to the diagnosis of pertussis using the polymerase chain reaction.
Notes on the definition and nomenclature of tandemly repetitive DNA sequences.
Other crucial markers were so-called microsatellites, regions of repetitive DNA that can expand or shrink from one generation to the next.
Through telomeres, caps composed of repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes.

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