Specific topics include dimensions of trust in public administration and their manifestation in online contexts, visions and realities of digital democracy, the adoption of ICTs by British political parties, the role of voter-information websites in representative democracies
, the application of ICTs to implementations of direct democracy, the use of new media for "micro-mobilization," the ways in which ICTs may impede change because of their complexity, ICT-related trends in the transformation of organizations, the influence of large-scale information exchange on addressing social problems, and various issues of implementation.
In representative democracies
outside the United States, generally speaking, the system continues to perform.
Support for functional and participatory models of democracy is linked to the recognition that representative democracies
have some important limitations in terms of conforming to democratic norms of representation, public deliberation and transparency.
If the elections are a success, it will send a powerful signal to neighboring countries like Pakistan, Iran, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, none of which can claim to be representative democracies
And stable representative democracies
do not require disproportionately large standing armies or security forces to impose control on their populations.
Low-intensity democracies, elected-but-hard-to-govern democracies (or, in the extreme, ungovernable), representative democracies
, non-liberal or illiberal democracies, imperfect democracies, immature democracies" is how he characterizes them.
This research project hypothesizes that numeric or political minorities in representative democracies
can influence policy through voting and that this influence will be facilitated by single-member districting as the electoral arrangement that provides more control over choosing representation.
He traces this degeneration from Athenian democracy and its fall, through the decoupling of democratic sovereignty and equality by Rousseau and others, the betrayed promises of Bolshevik democracy, and today's liberal-democratic representative democracies