Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

(redirected from SEATO)
Also found in: Dictionary, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to SEATO: ANZUS, cento

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an alliance organized pursuant to the Southeast Asia Defense Treaty to oppose the growing communist influence in Southeast Asia. The United States, the United Kingdom, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, the Philippines, and Pakistan signed the treaty and accompanying Pacific Charter in Manila on September 8, 1954. The treaty became operative in February 1955 and bound the signatories to mutual aid to resist armed attack or subversion; an armed attack on one signatory was interpreted as a danger to all.

Headquartered in Bangkok, SEATO relied on the military forces of member nations rather than commanding its own standing forces, as did the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In its first few years of operation, SEATO's effectiveness was not tested, but at the beginning of the 1960s, conflicts in South Vietnam and Laos challenged the strength of the alliance and ultimately found it lacking. France withdrew from military cooperation in SEATO in 1967, and Great Britain refused active military cooperation in the Vietnam conflict. Moreover, a 1960s dispute between Pakistan and India further undermined the efficacy of the alliance: Pakistan drew closer to communist China, while the United States provided aid to India.

In 1972 Pakistan completely withdrew from the alliance; in 1974 France suspended its membership payments. In September 1975 the signatories decided to phase out the operations, and SEATO was formally dissolved on June 30, 1977. The collective defense treaty remains in effect, however.

Further readings

Buszynski, Leszek. 1983. SEATO, the Failure of an Alliance Strategy. Singapore: Singapore Univ. Press.

Grenville, J.A.S., and Bernard Wasserstein. 2000. The Major International Treaties of the Twentieth Century. New York: Routledge.

Schoenl, William, ed. 2002. New Perspectives on the Vietnam War: Our Allies' Views. Lanham, Md.: Univ. Press of America.

State Department. 1995. Treaties in Force. Publication 9433.

References in periodicals archive ?
Before finalization of SEATO, Chester Bowles, the American ambassador to India, wrote a letter to Dulles in December 1953 saying that "arm supply to Pakistan could be used against India and would lead to great instability in the Middle East and Asia.
SEATO, however, was as close to a comprehensive system of regional security as was possible at the time, and its structural faults discredited the effort to complete the task for many years to come.
SEATO suffered its demise in 1977 when the organization failed to pursue constructive intervention in Indochina.
Desde mediados del siglo, la Casa Blanca ha tratado de construir una red de alianzas politico-comilitares que le permitieran decidir a su antojo como superpolicia del mundo que ha resuelto ser, las modalidades mundiales en su favor (OTAN, SEATO, TIAR), pero no es sino hasta los noventas cuando a proposito de "gobiernos delincuentes" como el de Hussein en la Guerra del Persico o el de Milosevic en Yugoslavia, pudo lograr que la ONU jugara un rol de comparsa en sus planes militares, y la OTAN un papel central en Europa dirigida por los comandantes norteamericanos.
He went wrong by greatly exaggerating our responsibility, and his authority under the SEATO treaty, to fight a major war in Vietnam.
The first phase, during the period 1948-1960, was dominated by vigorous and consistent attempts to build a network of military alliances that would link up NATO with SEATO, thus forming a wall of encirclement around the Sino-Soviet periphery.
If SEATO was sufficient authority for President Johnson to conduct military operations against North Vietnam (p.
He also got the chance to participate, as a member of the Pakistani team, in various international organisations and conferences, including Colombo Plan Conference, CENTO, SEATO, UNO, UNESCO etc.
The final replacement, CENTO, or Central Treaty Organization, marked the ascendancy of the United States and was patterned on NATO and SEATO.
This notion of Rimland became the bases for containment, Warsaw Pact, NATO, CENTO, SEATO, APEC and past twenty years instability in Afghanistan.
1989 Mark Pearson, Paper Tiger, New Zealand's Part in SEATO 1954-1977, 135pp
Pakistan had to join CENTO and SEATO, promised to fight the enemies of the US and give its military bases in Peshawar and Kharian to their forces and so on.