Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

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Related to SEATO: ANZUS, cento

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an alliance organized pursuant to the Southeast Asia Defense Treaty to oppose the growing communist influence in Southeast Asia. The United States, the United Kingdom, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, the Philippines, and Pakistan signed the treaty and accompanying Pacific Charter in Manila on September 8, 1954. The treaty became operative in February 1955 and bound the signatories to mutual aid to resist armed attack or subversion; an armed attack on one signatory was interpreted as a danger to all.

Headquartered in Bangkok, SEATO relied on the military forces of member nations rather than commanding its own standing forces, as did the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In its first few years of operation, SEATO's effectiveness was not tested, but at the beginning of the 1960s, conflicts in South Vietnam and Laos challenged the strength of the alliance and ultimately found it lacking. France withdrew from military cooperation in SEATO in 1967, and Great Britain refused active military cooperation in the Vietnam conflict. Moreover, a 1960s dispute between Pakistan and India further undermined the efficacy of the alliance: Pakistan drew closer to communist China, while the United States provided aid to India.

In 1972 Pakistan completely withdrew from the alliance; in 1974 France suspended its membership payments. In September 1975 the signatories decided to phase out the operations, and SEATO was formally dissolved on June 30, 1977. The collective defense treaty remains in effect, however.

Further readings

Buszynski, Leszek. 1983. SEATO, the Failure of an Alliance Strategy. Singapore: Singapore Univ. Press.

Grenville, J.A.S., and Bernard Wasserstein. 2000. The Major International Treaties of the Twentieth Century. New York: Routledge.

Schoenl, William, ed. 2002. New Perspectives on the Vietnam War: Our Allies' Views. Lanham, Md.: Univ. Press of America.

State Department. 1995. Treaties in Force. Publication 9433.

References in periodicals archive ?
The first phase, during the period 1948-1960, was dominated by vigorous and consistent attempts to build a network of military alliances that would link up NATO with SEATO, thus forming a wall of encirclement around the Sino-Soviet periphery.
334) Moreover, post-World War II alliances such as NATO and SEATO have resulted in presence of a large number of American troops in foreign countries during peacetime,(335) often performing jobs of a civilian nature.
He also got the chance to participate, as a member of the Pakistani team, in various international organisations and conferences, including Colombo Plan Conference, CENTO, SEATO, UNO, UNESCO etc.
In 1954 Pakistan signed the US-Pakistan Mutual Defence Agreement and joined the Western security alliances like the SEATO and CENTO even though popular opinion was hostile to it.
He admits that Pakistan has survived because of resilience of its people but is over simplistic in attributing country's survival to its adept Cold War alliances; he loses sight that Pakistan was member of SEATO and CENTO in 1971, yet we lost East Pakistan.
Dulles organized a Far East version of NATO, the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, or SEATO, whose stated purpose was to halt the spread of communism and communist subversion in the region and which would later be cited as a legal basis for another undeclared war, Vietnam.
In the same year Pakistan was made a member of SEATO and CENTO which Nehru criticized very sternly.
Tucker covers every significant event in US China policy from 1952 to 1960: the end of the Korean War, crises in the Taiwan Straits, the shelling of the offshore islands, treaty-building with SEATO and the Republic of China (ROC), Chinese and US nuclear armament, mutual nuclear threats and diplomatic negotiations, the Bandung Conference, Khrushchev's Secret Speech, the Great Leap, the Sino-Soviet split--it's all here, with many details on the ins and outs and an exhaustive cast of characters.
There is a perception that Pakistan was disintegrated by becoming part of SEATO and CENTO against the former USSR in the 1950s.
Spanish-American War 1898); and upholding a regional or bilateral defense pact (Vietnam and the SEATO mutual defense pact, Kosovo and NATO), treaty obligation (Vietnam and the 1954 Geneva Accord), and U.
Further pacts like SEATO and CENTO brought them even closer, and despite some hiccups particularly PakistanAEs disappointment in the 1971 India-Pakistan war, the countries were able to keep their relationship afloat.
In addition to this first extended period of graduate research, Needham visited Sarawak briefly in 1955 and was later awarded a SEATO Research Fellowship and returned for a further period of Penan fieldwork, mainly in the Baram District, between June-September 1958.