scattering

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In Section 2 analytical expression for phase fluctuations of scattered radiation in the direction perpendicular to the principle plane is derived using the smooth perturbation method taking into account the diffraction effects.
Factors like scattered radiation, image noise and divergence of the x-ray beam, leads to decrease in the contrast resolution of CBCT.
A study looking at the radiation dose operating staff receive during hip fracture surgery concluded that at a within a two-metre radius of the patient, gowns and thyroid neck protectors should be worn They also stated that at a distance of greater than two metres, theatre staff would not need to wear a lead gown because the very low dose of scattered radiation (Alonso et al 2001).
Since the primary method of exposure to the physician performing a fluoroscopic procedure is scattered radiation from the patient, the relative dose to the patient can be inferred from the measurement of the physician's dose.
Statscan produces less scattered radiation than conventional radiography systems, obviating the need for dedicated radiation protection and hence for patient transfer to a separate radiology department within the trauma unit.
b) This correction includes the re-absorption of scattered radiation and of fluorescent photons.
The beam-diffuse transmittance is measured with the sample in place and the reflection port open, allowing the transmitted beam component to escape while trapping the scattered radiation, as shown in Figure 2a.
The X-drape[TM] Sterilized Disposable Surgical Drape is designed to address the occupational hazard to physicians and hospital staff of high-level scattered radiation emanating from the patient's body during fluoroscopic procedures.
Included in the range is RADPADA - a sterile, lead free, light weight, and repositionable radiation protection shield - that is placed directly on the patient and gives the physician protection from the ever present scattered radiation.
Should the microwave background arise from the universe [2], the atmosphere of the Earth would still generate the same reservoirs of scattered radiation.
This ensures safe operating design and that any scattered radiation is within FDA acceptable levels.
In these cases, lead shielding can be used to block any scattered radiation.