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2) The second declension can be similarly subdivided on the basis of syllable count, but this contrast is again essentially taxonomic.
Furthermore, because plural grammatical case forms are based on singulars, the prosodic contrast between toolid and 'toolide also identifies TOOL as a first declension noun, while the contrast between 'motted and motete identifies MOTE as a second declension noun.
EKK (2000 : 241) identify a few hundred nouns that preserve the strengthening pattern illustrated by MOTE, but this pattern is no longer productive, and the paradigm structure and form inventories of the nouns that show strengthening gradation place them squarely within the second declension.
The two largest classes are the first declension, which contains nominals with vowel-final partitive singulars and the second declension, which contains nominals with consonant-final partitive singulars and non-trochaic genitive singulars.
But they cannot contain an initial Q3 because disyllabic genitive singulars with an initial Q3 are confined to the second declension.
The second declension contains nominals whose genitive singulars exhibit a range of non-trochaic patterns.
But for ilia a second declension form is attested only once: iliis (dative) at Celsus, Med.
For open-class verbs, a light Supine series or a heavy Impersonal series is diagnostic of the third conjugation and an infinitive form in -Vta identifies a second declension verb.