sections] 503 (2000)), "permitted Oklahoma Indians to take advantage of most of the provisions of the 1934 Wheeler-Howard Act, which ended allotments in severalty
, allowed the re-establishment of communal lands, and permitted the organization of tribal governments with control over tribal funds.
The American Dawes Severalty
Act or General Allotment Act of 1887 disrupted traditional systems of collective land tenure by promoting fee simple ownership, for which Indians had to apply.
26, 1862), in DOCUMENTS, supra note 5, at 95 (stating that "confining the Indians to reservations, and, from time to time, as they are gradually taught and become accustomed to the idea of individual property, allotting to them lands to be held in severalty, is the best method yet devised for their reclamation and advancement in civilization"); Hiram Price, COMM'R INDIAN AFF.
74) See GREAT FATHER, supra note 54, at 659 ("No panacea for the Indian problem was more persistently proposed than allotment of land to the Indians in severalty.
The General Allotment Act in 1887, in effect, sought to encourage the destruction of tribalism and the assimilation of Indians into white "civilization" by parcelling out treaty-guaranteed reservation lands to individual tribal members in severalty.
Under the Dawes Act, the President was authorized to allot reservation lands in severalty to resident Indians.
72) The Whipple Committee concluded that, for the "good of the Indian," efforts must be taken by the State to "[e]xterminate the tribe and preserve the individual; make citizens of them and divide their lands in severalty.
and partition of tribal lands "in severalty and in fee simple.