Ship damages

SHIP DAMAGES. In the charter parties with the English East India Company, these words occur; their meaning is damage from negligence, insufficiency or bad stowage in the ship. Dougl. 272; Abbott, on Ship. 204.

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Likewise the effect of high ice deformation on the frequency of ship damages in the winter of 2002/2003 is studied.
The high ice deformation rate is related to the vessel damages in the Gulf of Finland where 49 ship damages (Hanninen 2003) occurred during the winter season.
On the relationship between sea ice deformation and ship damages in the Gulf of Finland in winter 2003.
Forty-nine ship damage events were registered in the examined period.
Among the ice-covered regions, the Gulf of Finland is of highest traffic intensity and unfortunately it has also the highest number of ship damages.
One might speculate that per unit of the icebound ship route (say 106 ship-km in ice) there could be more ice-related ship damages in the Gulf of Riga than in the Gulf of Finland.
In both cases the ship damages happened close to the high growth rate area of deformed ice (Figs.
In the present paper we perform an analysis of sea ice deformation fields in the Gulf of Finland in relation to ship damage events in winter 2003, based on the results from the HELMI sea ice model that is used also in the Finnish ice service.
The ice pack was nearly immobile around the ship damage location in the morning of 11 January, but a fast SSE drift (more than 30 cm/s) was apparent westwards from the accident place.
In the area, where ship damage occurred, the total ice concentration was about 70-99%.
8) show that a strong deformation took place only in a small area to the south from the location of ship damage, at the edge of the ice margin.
To the knowledge of the authors, this study is a first attempt to investigate if ship damage events are related to the ice field properties that can be simulated and forecast by the contemporary sea ice models.

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