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For instance, if selection for canalization is relatively weak compared to stabilizing selection on phenotype, then genetic drift can move a population along a contour of equal phenotype.
To calculate how stabilizing selection acts on individuals that have particular combinations of direct genetic effects, and maternal effects we use the definition of [z.
When females oviposit alone, there is stabilizing selection on the offspring sex ratio (Green et al.
In this paper, I first develop a model of evolutionary change that incorporates strong stabilizing selection around an adaptive optimum as the dominant evolutionary force.
When it does so, it should experience stabilizing selection on glucosinolates but directional selection to minimize trichome density.
For a valley 90% as fit as the starting peak [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1B OMITTED], a decrease in the strength of stabilizing selection of only 16-30% is sufficient to cause the landscape to become unimodal and allow the population to evolve to the higher peak, regardless of the size of the population.
Simple examples include stabilizing selection on an additive polygenic trait (Wright 1935a; appendix), selection against heterozygous chromosome arrangements, frequency-dependent selection favoring the commoner type (as with Miillerian mimicry; Mallet 1986), and disruptive selection on one or more quantitative traits (e.
We assume that new offspring experience Gaussian stabilizing selection with fluctuating optimum [[Theta].
Reviews of stabilizing selection on morphological traits in natural populations report a range of intensities (Johnson 1976; Turelli 1984; Endler 1986).
Specifically, the following questions were addressed: (1) Does stabilizing selection act on initiation of flowering to promote synchronous flowering within a population?
The forces of directional selection and stabilizing selection were estimated as the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms, respectively, from regression analyses between relative feeding rate and bill depth (Lande and Arnold 1983).
We then illustrate the framework by showing how it can be used to determine the covariance pattern expected under several familiar types of gradual phenotypic evolution: (1) mutation and random genetic drift alone; (2) constant or fluctuating directional selection; and (3) stabilizing selection with random genetic drift or environmental fluctuations.