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Related to Sterilizations: sterilise, surgical sterilization


A medical procedure where the reproductive organs are removed or rendered ineffective.

Legally mandated sterilization of criminals, or other members of society deemed "socially undesirable," has for some time been considered a stain on the history of U.S. law. The practice, also known as eugenics, originated early in the twentieth century. In 1914, a Model Eugenical Sterilization Law was published by Harry Laughlin at the Eugenics Records Office. Laughlin proposed the sterilization of "socially inadequate" persons, which translated as anyone "maintained wholly or in part by public expense." This would include the "feebleminded, insane, blind, deaf, orphans, and the homeless." At the time the model law was published, 12 states had enacted sterilization laws. Such laws were seen to benefit society since they presumably reduced the burden on taxpayers of maintaining state-run facilities. Eventually, these laws were challenged in court.

In Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200 (1927), oliver wendell holmes jr. wrote the infamous opinion that upheld the constitutionality of a Virginia sterilization law, fueling subsequent legislative efforts to enact additional sterilization laws. By 1930, 30 states and Puerto Rico had passed laws mandating sterilization for many criminal or moral offenses. Nearly all of the states with such laws imposed mandatory sterilization of mentally defective citizens. Nineteen states required sterilization for parents of children likely to experience various disorders. Six states encouraged sterilization for individuals whose children might be "socially inadequate."

Finally, the Supreme Court struck down an Oklahoma law mandating involuntary sterilization for repeat criminals in Skinner v. Oklahoma, 316 U.S. 535, 62 S. Ct. 1110, 86 L. Ed. 1655 (1942). Justice william o. douglas's opinion broadly defined the right to privacy to include the right to procreate, and concluded that the government's power to sterilize interfered with an individual's basic liberties.

By mid-century, legal attitudes had changed, and many state sterilization laws were held to be unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment prohibiting Cruel and Unusual Punishment.

Further readings

Carlson, Elof Axel. 2001. The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Kevles, Daniel J. 1985. In the Name of Eugenics. New York: Knopf.

Smith, J. David, and K. Ray Nelson. 1999. The Sterilization of Carrie Buck. Far Hills, N.J.: New Horizon Press.

References in periodicals archive ?
And among women who had undergone sterilizations six or more years earlier, the odds of reporting sterilization regret were elevated among those who had only sons compared with those who had a combination of sons and daughters.
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Cat impounds in Los Angeles have plummeted since 1997, a decline animal control officials say supports a controversial proposal to make pet sterilization mandatory.
Realizing the importance and potential of gamma irradiation technology and the benefits the medical and pharmaceutical industries would get out of it, it was decided by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission to establish such a facility under the name of Pakistan Radiation Services, briefly known as PARAS, for the sterilization of medical disposable products and pharmaceuticals.
San Jose, Costa Rica--A Catholic archbishop has spoken out against the massive government-sponsored sterilization campaign currently being waged against the poor of Costa Rica.
Linda Gordon, the Animal Regulation Department's administrative services officer, said the sterilization clinic at the North Central Shelter in Lincoln Heights will be available to keep down the number of stray dogs and cats.
Catholics often ask what does the Church teach about contraceptive sterilization of a man or a woman?
There will be a December-through-April push to offer free or low-cost sterilizations twice a month, but the effort will need donations to operate, said Frank R.
Joseph's Hospital in Toronto both perform contraceptive female sterilization, insert intrauterine devices (which are always abortifacient) and provide information on contraception via Ontario government and other pamphlets, which are available for everyone to pick up in their family health clinics.