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The Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Colombia is defined by a narrow volcanic arc located above the Benioffzone that overlies the steeply subducting slab dipping about 45[degrees] to the east (Ojeda and Havskov, 2001) (Figure 5).
The intensive seismicity along the Middle American Trench (MAT) has a broad pattern reflecting the low angle of inclination of the subducting Nazca and Cocos plates under the Central American Continent.
In mature subduction zones, original chemistry of the mantle wedge is progressively blurred by metasomatic fluids from the subducting slab.
If so, this indicates that the subducting lithosphere dipped eastward beneath the presently juxtaposed Central Maine terrane and Merrimack belt.
In other areas, part of the upper plate may collapse onto the subducting plate and be carried down with it.
The interface between the subducting Indian plate and the upper Himalayan and Tibetan crust is the Main Himalayan thrust fault, which reaches the surface in southern Nepal," Nabelek said.
A long, narrow, curvilinear trench in the ocean floor develops where the subducting plate starts its angled descent into the mantle.
In a vertical section with orientation N70[degrees]E, parallel to the direction of plate convergence, it can be observed that earthquakes are distributed in depth forming two groups (Figure 1b), one is spatially associated with the subducting Nazca plate, and the other is formed by events probably occurring inside the overriding SA plate.
When the subducting slab reaches a depth of several dozen kilometers, some of its constituents melt, expand to become less dense, and then percolate through cracks or other weaknesses in the overlying slab of crust.
High-stress regime characteristics include a large accretionary prism, large shallow earthquakes, a wide range in the composition of the igneous rocks, and a shallow-dipping subducting slab.
Subducting plates are comparatively colder than surrounding mantle materials and thus should be less conductive.