Although proposed as the most effective model for regionalization, neofunctionalism is not without its criticism, its critics contend that the theory placed an undue emphasis on supranationality
and failed to recognize the autonomy of the political sector and "the interaction between the international environment and the integrating region.
However, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs kept the discussion within their own responsibility as long as supranationality
was the major controversial issue.
The EC wanted to create a "citizens' Europe" and give Europeans a sense of supranationality
, the basic idea that "together we are strong.
This point was made by Ernest Mandel, "International Capitalism and Supranationality
," in Ralph Miliband and John Saville, eds.
Accountability vis-a-vis the national parliaments would not, in my view, be consistent within the euro's supranationality
74) From this perspective, it is not surprising that the Conseil d'Etat took it upon itself to combat the "virus of supranationality
," holding out until the "government and even Parliament [were] urging it to change its jurisprudence.
As a result, many scholars sharing the neofunctionalist and pluralist bias against the state have gravitated to sectoral policy studies, where they are able to generate more convincing evidence of the emergence of a multilevel European polity, with the diffusion of state power upward to the EU level and downward to the regions, as well as of the important role of supranationality
and a variety of nongovernmental and transnational groups.
institutions can achieve a political reality that is different from traditional supranationality
and therefore be able to avoid direct confrontation over sovereignty.
4) Assured outcomes are quite frequent in EU negotiation processes, partly because of mechanisms such as supranationality
and the continuous nature of the process.