4-- From explicit to tacit knowledge
or internalization: It is a process uses explicit knowledge for creating of tacit knowledge
The influence of tacit knowledge
and collective mind on strategic planning.
is what Polanyi (1966:16-17) considers to be the personal aspect of any explicit knowledge and is essential in order to gain a holistic understanding of the knowledge with which one is concerned.
There are two types of corporate knowledge: explicit knowledge (formalized) and tacit knowledge
The knowledge environment must address the full spectrum of knowledge--from explicit knowledge that we can write down and manage as a physical artifact, to the more elusive tacit knowledge
(the knowledge in our heads), which many argue cannot be made explicit.
If this internalized tacit knowledge
is effectively codified and entered into knowledge management or expert systems, does the organization effectively minimize the value or the originator of this knowledge and potentially render this person redundant?
was measured by four items ([alpha] = .
Identify tacit knowledge
first - Many organisations find that identifying their team's tacit knowledge
is the biggest hurdle.
Moreover, as the tacit knowledge
is difficult to express, codify, and transmit across, it makes easier for the corporate to protect it than explicit form of knowledge (Rebernik & Sirec 2007).
To transfer tacit knowledge
there must be deep interaction between the university researchers and the firm's development team.
There are four ways of interaction between tacit and explicit knowledge (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995): (i) socialization--the process of creating new tacit knowledge
from gathering accumulated experiences; (ii) externalization--the process of transforming tacit knowledge
into explicit knowledge (concepts and/or diagrams) using metaphors or analogies; (iii) combination--process of assembling explicit knowledge in order to obtain new systemic knowledge (in many cases, for obtaining new tangible assets it is necessary to combine existing knowledge with a new concept) and (iv) internalization--the process of transforming explicit knowledge in tacit knowledge
By exposing the tacit knowledge
, skills, and competencies assumed inherent in technological systems, the book casts doubt on the intentions and beliefs held by IT users and developers, and asks us to consider the social dynamics of such systems.