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The Stoics modified Diogenes's teachings to suit their need.
He revisits these themes from a variety of angles in order to demonstrate not only that both Gandhi and Stoics illuminate one another for the modern reader, but also that they could to some extent have served as mutual correctives: the Stoics provide a systematic account of ethics from which Gandhi could have benefited; and Gandhi shows how such values might (or might not) work in practice.
In this case, especially several elements of the Stoic philosophy will be interesting for the possible solutions of the formulation of the fundamental concepts of bioethics, environmental thinking, and our theoretical reflection on the relationship of culture and nature in general.
a) According to the Stoics, we humans are moved to pursue or avoid 'indifferents', i.
Every person wished to be a citizen of something more elevated than his immediate society: "Man, according to the Stoics, ought to regard himself, not as something separated and detached, but as a citizen of the world, a member of the vast commonwealth of nature," Smith wrote.
Fitzgerald observes, in his essay on slavery in a variety of biblical texts, that while neither their authors nor the Stoics urged the overthrow of existing hierarchies, they shared a minority view in advocating the humanizing and humane treatment of slaves, whose accidental status was no bar to their possession of virtue and inner freedom.
Cosmology & Self in the Apostle Paul is a 'sequel' to the author's earlier Paul and the Stoics and builds on the investigation of philosophical underpinnings of the Pauline letters which was begun there.
The first four papers investigate Aristotle, Plato, and the Stoics on elements of what constitutes happiness.
The whole purpose of pursuing knowledge and engaging in philosophy, the Stoics maintained, is to bring about a transformation in one's life.
Neither was insensibility confined to the Stoics, as Gilles Montsarrat points out: "Sometimes Christian patience even comes perilously close to the oft-denounced 'senselessness' of the Stoics"; Montsarrat cites Gabriel Powell's condemnation of Job, who "seemed as it were, to take pleasure in his afflictions.
Diogenes's later representation, whether one believes it or not, reflects an amusing tradition that Horace, tongue firmly in cheek, saw fit to use against the Stoics, just as he mocked their paradoxes and dogma.