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The trigeminal nerve projects directly or indirectly to specific areas of the brain, such as the locus coeruleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, thalamus, and the cerebral cortex, which are involved in epilepsy, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and other disorders.
Antitussive agents suppress the cough reflex peripherally by suppressing the stimulation of sensory neurons in the airways or centrally at the level of the cough center in the nucleus tractus solitarius and its integrating network (Reynolds et al.
21) The CTZ also receives input from vagal neurons, and exchanges neurons with the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS).
On the other hand, Mouihate and Pittman have shown that fever after LPS injection does not increase cell death in hypocampus, hypothalamus, area postrema, subfornical organ, lamina terminalis and nucleus tractus solitarius (18).
Substance P is a mammalian tachykinin in the vagal afferent neurons that innervate the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius, which sends impulses to the vomiting center.
Similarly, exposure to sidestream tobacco smoke not only sensitized bronchopulmonary C-fibers but also transmitted this enhanced excitability to the nucleus tractus solitarius, which regulates outgoing autonomic signals, as well as other efferent information, to the heart and lungs (Mutoh et al.
The Penn group not only identified a necessary part of the brain which mediates the food intake suppression effect produced by these drugs, the nucleus tractus solitarius, or NTS, but also the cellular signalling pathways required for production of GLP-1's satiety effects.
beta]-Endorphin is generated from the precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), which is synthesized in the anterior pituitary (and in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary in rodents), as well as in neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the nucleus tractus solitarius (see figure 3).
At the brain stem level, all the afferent nerve fibers from the oral cavity involved in initiating or facilitating swallowing converge in the CPG, especially in the nucleus tractus solitarius along with cortical drive.

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