Twenty-Second Amendment

Twenty-Second Amendment

The Twenty-second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution reads:

Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

The Twenty-second Amendment was proposed on March 24, 1947, and ratified on February 27, 1951. The amendment imposed term limits on the office of president of the United States.

The Framers of the Constitution vested power in a single executive, elected for a term of four years. Participants at the Constitutional Convention discussed the wisdom of limiting presidential terms, but in the end the convention refused to limit the number of terms. The Framers believed a four-year term and an independent Electoral College would prevent a president from seeking more than two terms.

President George Washington declined the offer of a third term, as did Thomas Jefferson. Once the tradition of serving no more than two terms had been established in the early 1800s, it became a canon of U.S. politics. President franklin d. roosevelt ignored the tradition in 1940, however, when he chose to run for a third term. He did so in the belief that U.S. involvement in World War II was imminent. In making his bid for a third term, Roosevelt ignored the advice of some members of the Democratic Party. In 1944, with the war raging, Roosevelt was elected to an unprecedented fourth term. In declining health when elected, he died in 1945.

After the 1946 election, which produced Republican majorities in both houses of Congress, the Republicans sought to prevent a repetition of Roosevelt's actions. The Twenty-second Amendment was introduced in 1947 and adopted in 1951. The amendment prohibits a person from serving more than two four-year terms. A person who serves more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected president may be elected only for one full term. For example, if a president dies in the first year of the term, the vice president who becomes president may be elected to only one four-year term. If, however, the president dies in the third year of the term, the vice president would be eligible to serve a maximum of ten years.

References in periodicals archive ?
Missing here, too, is the fact that the Twenty-Second Amendment became part of the U.
The Constitution Twenty-second Amendment Billa[euro]s 2013 was also introduced in the House.
28, 2013 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- This week marked the 62nd anniversary of the Twenty-second Amendment to the U.
See Huston, supra note 95, at 65 ("[S]upporters of the amendment and observers of the legislative trends feel that the assertion that 1937 may be the year in which the Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution will join other historic changes in the basic law, is not without foundation.
It's that goshdarned Twenty-Second Amendment preventing it.
All the powers of the president would remain exactly the same, and in that sense, this proposal would have less political impact than changes such as the Twenty-second Amendment, which limited the president to two terms.
For Clinton, however, another run at the Presidency is foreclosed by the Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution, which provides that no person shall be elected President more than twice.
Also, as I learned several years ago in a visit to China, the Twenty-Second Amendment, with its two-term limitation in regard to the presidency, is of great interest to the Chinese.
One explanation for this phenomenon is the president's status as a lame duck due to the term limits imposed by the Twenty-second Amendment.
Yet, prior to the passage of the Twenty-Second Amendment, second-term presidents may have been more likely to engage in campaigning than later presidents such as Clinton or Reagan, who were term limited.
In addition, the revised understanding of presidential term limits set out in this article might also be significant in informing ongoing debates about the wisdom of repealing the Twenty-Second Amendment (see, e.
The second-term president, who because of the Twenty-Second Amendment cannot run again, is free from the cares of reelection politics that many presidents regard as impediments to doing the best job possible.