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Related to Utilitarians: deontologists, Kantians
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Philosophers and psychologists have long argued about whether there is one "right" answer to such moral questions, be it utilitarian ethics, which advocates saving as many as possible, even if it requires personally harming an individual, or non-utilitarian principles, which mandate strict adherence to rules like "don't kill" that are rooted in the value of human life and dignity.
Utilitarian was the descriptive label of prior arts education justification given by arts educators espousing aesthetic education who sought to justify the arts as part of the general school curriculum on a new footing.
Given the research in behavioral psychology, utilitarians face a difficult task in arguing in further support for utilitarian theories of punishment, specifically deterrence-based punishment.
Another student questioned how a utilitarian might accurately weigh the profit of many music fans against the cost to any one musician.
The conflict between humanitarians and utilitarians in the law of war is nothing new.
Smith explains: "To the radical utilitarian Harris, saving two or more lives at the expense of one murder would bring greater overall happiness than the suffering caused by the killing of one man or woman.
However, even if we grant Singer the claim that all mammals have projects, so long as we remain utilitarians this just means that research on mammals carries a higher burden of justification than does research on "lower" animals like reptiles or insects, a point many researchers would readily grant.
If we look at their arguments, we see that utilitarians look to the future, while the Natural Law looks to the present moment.
First, he attempts to bridge the gulf between those who argue for private property, individual rights, and freedom of contract from a "natural law" perspective and those who advance these ideas from a more utilitarian perspective.
If we remain strictly rationalists, utilitarians, that implies we can arrange everything according to our pleasure.
designed to further utilitarian goals such as general deterrence,
In addition to his work as a British literary author and critic, Leslie Stephen (1832- 1904) made some contributions to philosophical history and theory with his History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century (1876 and 1881), The Science of Ethics (1882), and this three-volume study of English utilitarian thought, first published in 1900 and presented here in unexpurgated facsimile.