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The apparent volume of distribution of norfentanyl (V2) was fixed at 100 000 mL because the percentage of the dose metabolized from fentanyl to norfentanyl was unknown.
In 1987, a small study in 10 infants showed they had different pharmacokinetic parameters than those reported in adults, with a lower clearance and large volume of distribution resulting in a prolonged elimination half-life.
Lumefantrine has a large volume of distribution (Vd).
Note that the clearance, the volume of distribution, the elimination constant, and the half-life were consistent when calculated after the first and 13th doses, despite a large decrease in dose that was initiated after measurement of the first-dose area under the time-vs-concentration curve (AUC).
Low concentrations are characteristic of chronic leiver disease, being due to both decreaswed synthesis and an increase in the volume of distribution as a result of fluid retention and the formation of ascites.
Distribution refers to how the drug disperses throughout the body, and is usually expressed as the apparent volume of distribution (Vd).
Presence of edema, due to renal malfunctioning, in cirrhosis, increases volume of distribution, altering drug bioavailability.
The product r x W is equal to the volume of distribution [V.