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The hunting of whales for food, oil, or both.

The hunting of whales by Eskimos and Native Americans began around 100 a.d. in North America. In Europe the systematic hunting of whales began during the Middle Ages and greatly expanded in the seventeenth century. Whaling was driven by the desire to procure whale oil and sperm oil. Whale oil comes from baleen whales and is an edible product that was used in the making of margarine and cooking oil. Sperm oil, which comes from sperm whales, was used for illuminating lamps, as an industrial lubricant, and as a component of soaps, cosmetics, and perfumes.

During the nineteenth century, the U.S. whaling fleet dominated the world industry. Most of the seven hundred U.S. ships sailed out of New Bedford and Nantucket, Massachusetts. However, the industry went into a steep decline with the discovery and exploitation of petroleum during the late nineteenth century. Though new uses for sperm oil were developed, the U.S. fleet gradually disappeared.

In the early twentieth century, concerns were raised about the dwindling whale population. An international movement to regulate the hunting of whales met resistance from Scandinavian countries and Japan, but in 1931 the League of Nations convened a Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. It proved unsuccessful because several important whaling states refused to participate.

Annual international whaling conferences led to the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1946, which established the International Whaling Commission (IWC). The IWC was charged with the conservation of whale stocks. It limited the annual Antarctic kill and created closed areas and hunting seasons throughout the world. Despite these initiatives and others over the years, the whale population edged closer to extinction, and the IWC agreed in 1982 to prohibit commercial whaling beginning in 1986. Commercial whaling has continued, however, often under the fiction of capturing specimens for scientific research.

In 1990 a scientific study was begun to determine if the whaling Moratorium should be lifted. Though the study indicated that whale populations were growing, in 1993 the United States refused to agree to a resumption of commercial whaling, and the IWC agreed. The United States warned that if a country (primarily Japan, Norway, or Iceland) ignored the IWC conservation program and resumed commercial whaling without IWC approval, that country's actions would be reviewed, and sanctions would be considered where appropriate.

Further readings

Freeman, Milton M. R., et al. 1998. Inuit, Whaling, and Sustainability. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press.


Environmental Law; Fish and Fishing.

References in periodicals archive ?
A six-vessel whaling fleet is to return to Japan in several days and the whales will be used for research, the agency said.
Japan's whaling "godfather," Seiji Ohsumi, directs the Institute of Cetacean Research (ICR), established when the whaling moratorium took effect in 1987.
Japan's research whaling operation has triggered sanctions from the United States.
Some young people come to Taiji to experience traditional whaling," said Miyato Sugimori, 48, an official at a fishermen's cooperative in Taiji.
Is there any valid reason to refuse Norway's request to the International Whaling Commission for permission to conduct a "sustainable" hunt of abundant minke whales?
Now a museum, it houses exhibits on whales and whaling.
Indeed, after becoming a signatory to the IWC in 1948, the Soviet Union systematically violated every IWC whaling quota.
It undermines international efforts to conserve and protect whales and goes against the spirit of the International Whaling Commission s moratorium on commercial whaling.
Whales" also explores the changing attitudes from the history of whaling to modem ecotourism, examines different species of whales, details how they swim, feed, and mate, and why they sometimes strand themselves on land.
Was there ever a more romantic, legendary occupation in American history than the whaling industry, pitting men, handheld harpoons, and small boats against the largest creatures on Earth?
When commercial whaling began approximately 1,000 years ago, the species' populations began to plummet.
Last October, Iceland announced it would resume hunting great whales, breaking a 20-year moratorium on commercial whaling.