gradation

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Related to ablaut: metathesis, umlaut, suppletion
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The vocalic contrasts displayed by figure 1 have been largely discussed in the literature as ablaut (or apophony) and the different vocalic value are usually referred to as ablaut grades.
As regards the historical phonology of the Ob-Ugric forms, the vowel correspondence is regular: the regular reflexes of PU *a(- a) are PKh *a and PMs *u, and the attested PKh *i is the high ablaut grade of *a (Helimski 2001; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2006 : 42), implying that there has been a lost suffix in the stem that triggered the ablaut.
83) Likewise, Machek, emphasizing the presence of ablaut in Lithuanian, rejects the notion that Slavic vlad- represents a borrowing from Germanic.
The word `raw' is from OE hreaw, an ablaut variant of which, hreow, gives rise to Middle English spellings in rou(e) and row(e), making `raw-looker' a possible reading for roulokere.
The six major processes distinguished by this author are: compounding, affixation, suprafixation, replication (string of phonemes that is a copy of the replicant), apophony (also known as ablaut, alternation of sounds within a word that indicates grammatical information, often inflectional), and conversion.
Indogermanisches Nomen: Indogermanisches Nomen: Derivation, Flexion find Ablaut.
The topics include the expression of spatio-temporal locations in late Proto-Indo-European, verbal categorization and the coding of valency in Tocharian, internal reconstruction versus external comparison in Indo-Uralic laryngeals, the aspect-tense system and quantitative ablaut, how many noun suffices Proto-Indo-European had, and new Latin evidence for the Indo-European long-vowel preterit.
Aronoff 1994) which exists on a par with other stem-forming constructions, such as ablaut or truncation or theme vowel suffixation, forming stem types which other morphological constructions call for.
Only archaic formations exemplify derivational ablaut relations in Old English.
the vowel apocope in Estonian, the gradation in Estonian and Finnish, the ablaut in Danish and Swedish.
Mailhammer expands upon his work on morphological and etymological study if Germanic strong verbs by investigating Germanic, the common ancestor to all Germanic languages, centering on the topological position of ablaut in comparison to the parent language, which is Indo-European, the high degree of uniformity and organization, the fusion process involved in the language's genesis.
The positionals stehen 'stand', liegen 'lie', hangen 'hang', and schwimmen 'be afloat in liquid', on the other hand, are so called starke Verben 'strong verbs' which show ablaut in the past tense and past participle forms.