limitation

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Limitation

A qualification, restriction, or circumspection.

In the law of property, a limitation on an estate arises when its duration or quality is in some way restricted. For example, in the conveyance, "Owner conveys Blackacre to A until B leaves the country," A's estate is limited, since A is given Blackacre for only a specified length of time.

limitation

noun barrier, block, circumscriptio, clause, condition, constraint, curb, determinatio, disallowance, prohibition, proscription, provision, qualification, reservation, restraint, restriction, specific confinement, specific curtailment, specification
Associated concepts: alternative limitations, collateral limitation, conditional limitation, contingent limitation, conveyance upon a limitation, estate upon a limitation, exxcutory limitation, limitation of actions, limitation of dammges, limitation of liability, limitation of time, limitation of warranties, limitation over, public debt limitation, special limitation, statute of limitations, tax limitation, words of limitation
See also: abatement, abridgment, alienation, bar, boundary, capacity, censorship, check, clause, coercion, compulsion, condition, constraint, control, custody, damper, detention, deterrence, deterrent, disadvantage, discipline, drawback, enclosure, end, extent, fetter, flaw, foible, guideline, handicap, impairment, impediment, incarceration, maximum, mete, moderation, modification, obstacle, obstruction, periphery, prohibition, provision, purview, qualification, quota, reservation, restraint, restriction, term, termination

limitation

the body of rules that prevent actions being raised after a lapse of time. It is a form of time-bar. Technically they are different from prescription rules. Limitation does not extinguish the underlying right, whereas prescription does. In England, there is a three-year limitation period to claims for personal injury and a six-year period to most other claims. In Scotland there is a three-year limitation period in respect of personal injuries, but most other claims are dealt with under the short negative prescription of five years.

LIMITATION, estates. When an estate is so expressly confined and limited by the words of its creation, that it cannot endure for a longer time than till the contingency shall happen, upon which the estate is to fail, this is denominated a limitation; as, when land is granted to a man while he continues unmarried, or until the rents and profits shall have made a certain sum, and the like; in these cases the estate is limited, that is, it does not go beyond the happening of the contingency. 2 Bl. Com. 155; 10 Co. 41; Bac. Ab. Conditions, H; Co. Litt. 236 b; 4 Kent. Com. 121; Tho. Co. Litt. Index, h.t.; 10 Vin. Ab. 218; 1 Vern. 483, n. 4; Ves. Jr. 718.
     2. There is a difference between a limitation and a condition. When a thing is given until an event shall arrive, this is called a limitation; but when it is given generally, and the gift is to be defeated upon the happening of an uncertain event, then the gift is conditional. For example, when a man gives a legacy to his wife, while, or as long as, she shall remain his widow, or until she shall marry, the estate is given to her only for the time of her widowhood and, on her marriage, her right to it determines. Bac. Ab. Conditions, H. But if, instead of giving the legacy to the wife, as above mentioned, the gift had been to her generally with a proviso, or on condition that she should not marry, or that if she married she should forfeit her legacy, this would be a condition, and such condition being in restraint of marriage, would be void.

LIMITATION, remedies. A bar to the alleged right of a plaintiff to recover in an action, caused by the lapse of a certain time appointed by law; or it is the end of the time appointed by law, during which a party may sue for and recover a right. It is a maxim of the common law, that a right never dies and, as far as contracts were concerned, there was no time of limitation to actions on such contracts. The only limit there was to the recovery in cases of torts was the death of one of the parties; for it was a maxim actio personalis moritur cum persona. This unrestrained power of commencing actions at any period, however remote from the original cause of action, was found to encourage fraud and injustice; to prevent which, to assure the titles to land, to quiet the possession of the owner, and to prevent litigation, statutes of limitation were passed. This was effected by the statutes of 32 Hen. VIII. c. 2, and 21 Jac, I. c. 16. These statutes were adopted and practiced upon in this country, in several of the states, though they are now in many of the states in most respects superseded by the enactments of other acts of limitation.
     2. Before proceeding to notice the enactments on this subject in the several states, it is proper to call the attention of the reader to the rights of the government to sue untrammeled by any statue of limitations, unless expressly restricted, or by necessary implication included. It has therefore been decided that the general words of a statute ought not to include the government, or affect its rights, unless the construction be clear and indisputable upon the text of the act; 2 Mason's R. 314; for no laches can be imputed to the government. 4 Mass. R. 528; 2 Overt. R. 352; 1 Const. Rep. 125; 4 Henn. & M. 53; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 291; 1 Bay's R. 26. The acts of limitation passed by the several states are not binding upon the government of the United States, in a suit in the courts of the United States. 2 Mason's R. 311.
     3. For the following abstract of the laws of the United States and of the several states, regulating the limitations of actions, the author has been much assisted by the appendix of Mr. Angell's excellent treatise on the Limitation of Actions.
     4. United States. 1. On contracts. All suits on marshals' bonds shall be commenced and prosecuted within six years after the right of action shall have accrued, and not after; saving the rights of infants, femes covert, and persons non compos mentis, so that they may sue within three years after disability removed. Act of April 10, 1806, s. 1.
     5.-2. On legal proceedings. Writs of error must be brought within five years after judgment or decree complained of; saving in cases of disability the right to bring them five years after its removal. Act of September 24, 1789, s. 22. And the like limitation is applied to bills of review. 10 Wheat. 146.
     6.-3. Penalties. Prosecutions under the revenue laws, must be commenced within three years. Act of March 2, 1799, Act of March 1, 1823. Suits for penalties respecting copyrights, within two years. Act of April 29, 1802, s. 3. Suits in violation of the provisions of the act of 1818, respecting the slave trade, must be commenced within five years. Act of April 20, 1818, s. 9.
     7.-4. Crimes. Offences punishable by a court martial must be proceeded against within two years unless the person by reason of having absented himself, or some other manifest impediment, has not been amenable to justice within that period. The act of April 30, 1790, s. 31, limits the prosecution and trial of treason or other capital offence, willful murder or forgery excepted, to three years next after their commission; and for offences not capital to two years, unless the party has fled from justice. 2 Cranch, 336.
     8. Alabama. 1. As to real estate. 1. After twenty years after title accrued, no entry can be made into lands. 2. No action for the recovery of land can be maintained, if commenced after thirty years after title accrued. 3. Actions on claims by virtue of any title which has not been confirmed by either of the boards of commissioners of the United States, for adjusting land claims &c., and not recognized or confirmed by any act of congress, are barred after three years; there is a proviso as to lands formerly in West Florida, and in favor of persons under disabilities.
     9.-2. As to personal actions. 1. Actions of trespass, quare clausum fregit; trespass; detinue; trover; replevin for taking away of goods and chattels; of debt, founded on any lending or contract, without specialty, or for arrearages of rent on a parol demise of account and upon the case, (except actions for slander, and such as concern the trade of merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors or agents, are to be commenced within six years next after the cause of action accrued, and not after.
    10.-2. Actions of trespass for assaults, menace, battery, wounding and imprisonment, or any of them, are limited to two years.
    11.-3. Actions for words to one year.
    12.-4. Actions of debt or covenant for rent or arrearages of rent, founded upon any lease under seal, or upon any single or penal bill for the payment of money only, or on any obligation with condition for the payment of money only, or upon any award under the hands and seals of arbitrators, are to be commenced within sixteen years after the cause of action accrued, and not after; but if any payment has been made on the same at any time, then sixteen years from the time of such payment.
    13.-5. Judgments cannot be revived after twenty years.
    14.-6. A new action must be brought within one year when the former has been reversed on error, or the judgment has been arrested.
    15.-7. Actions on book accounts must be commenced within three years, except in the case of trade or merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors or agents.
    16.-8. Writs of error must be sued out within three years after final judgment.
    17. Arkansas. 1. As to lands. No action for the recovery of any lands or tenements, or for the recovery of the possession thereof, shall be maintained, unless it appears that the plaintiff, his ancestor, predecessor, or grantor, was seised or possessed of the promises in question within ten years before the commencement of such suit. Act of March 3, 1838, s. 1. Rev. Stat. 527. No entry upon lands or tenements shall be deemed sufficient or valid as a claim, unless an action be commenced thereon within one year after such entry, and within ten years from the time when the right to make such entry descended and accrued. Id. s. 2. The right of any person to the possession of any lands or tenements, shall not be impaired or affected by a descent cast in consequence of the death of any person in possession of such estate. Id. s. 3.
    18. The savings are as follows: If any person entitled to commence any action in the preceding sections specified, or to make an entry, be, at the time such title shall first descend or accrue; first, within the age of twenty-one years; second, insane; third, beyond the limits of the state; or, fourth, a married woman; the time during which such disabilities shall continue, shall not be deemed any portion of the time in this act limited for the commencement of such suit, or the making of such entry; but such person may bring such action, or make such entry, after the time so limited, and within five years after such disability is removed, but not after that period. Id. S. 4. If any person entitled to commence any such action, or make such entry, die during the continuance of such disability specified in the preceding section, and no determination or judgment be had of the title, right, or action to him accrued, his heirs may commence such action, or make such entry, after the time in this act limited for that purpose, and within five years after his death, and not after that period. Id. s. 5, Rev. Stat. 527.
    19.-2. As to personal actions. 1. The following actions shall be commenced within three years after the cause of action shall accrue: first, all actions founded upon any contract, obligation, or liability, (not under seal,) excepting such as are brought upon the judgment or decree of some court of record of the United States, of this, or some other state; second, all actions upon judgments rendered in any court not being a court of record; third, all actions for arrearages of rent, (not reserved by some instrument under seal); fourth, all actions of account, assumpsit, or on the case, founded on any contract or liability, expressed or implied; fifth, all actions of trespass on lands, or for libels; sixth, all actions for taking or injuring any goods or, chattels. Id. s. 6, Rev. Stat. 527, 528.
    20.-2. The following actions shall be commenced within one year after the cause of action shall accrue, and not after: first, all special actions on the case for criminal conversation, assault and battery and false imprisonment; second, all actions for words spoken, slandering the character of another; third, all words spoken whereby special damages are sustained. Id. s. 7.
    21.-3. All actions against sheriffs or other officers, for the escape of any person imprisoned on civil process, shall be commenced within one year from the time of such escape, and not after. Id. s. 8.
    22.-4. All actions against sheriffs and coroners, upon any liability incurred by them, by doing any act in their official capacity, or by the omission of any official duty, except for escapes, shall be brought within two years after the cause of action shall have accrued, and not thereafter. Id. s. 9.
    23.-5. All actions upon penal statutes where the penalty or any part thereof, goes to the state, or any county, or person suing for the same, shall be commenced within two years after the offence shall have been committed, or the cause of action shall have accrued. Id. s. 10.
    24.-6. All actions not included in the foregoing provisions, shall be commenced within five years after the cause of action shall have accrued. Id. s. 11.
    25.-7. In all actions of debt, account or assumpsit, brought to recover any balance due upon a mutual, open account current, the cause of action shall be deemed to have accrued from the time of the last item proved in such account Id. s. 12.
    26. The savings are as follows: 1. If any person entitled to bring any action in the preceding seven sections mentioned, except in actions against sheriffs for escapes, and actions of slander, shall, at the time of action accrued, be either within the age of twenty-one years, or insane, or beyond the limits of this state, or a married woman, such person shall be at liberty to bring such action within the time specified in this act, after such disability is removed. Id. s. 13.
    27.-2. If any person entitled to bring an action in the preceding provisions of this act specified, die before the expiration of the time limited for the commencement of such suit, and such cause of action shall survive to his representatives, his executors or administrators may, after the expiration of such time, and within one year after such death, commence such suit, but not after that period. Id. s. 19.
    28.-3. If at any time when any cause of action specified in this act accrues against any person, he be out of the state, such action may be commenced within the times herein respectively limited, after the return of such person into the state; and if, after such cause of action shall have accrued, such person depart from, and reside out of the state, the time of his absence shall not be deemed or taken as any part of the time limited for the commencement of such action. Id. s. 20. If any person, by leaving the county absconding or concealing himself, or any other improper act of his own, prevent the commencement of any action in this act specified, such action may be commenced within the times respectively limited, after the commencement of such action shall have ceased to be so prevented. Id. s. 26.
    29.-4. None of the provisions of this act shall apply to suit's brought to enforced payment on bills, notes, or evidences of debt issued by any bank, or moneyed corporation. Id. s. 18.
    30. Connecticut. 1. As to lands. No person can make an entry into lands after fifteen years next after his right or title first accrued to the same; and no such entry is valid unless an action is afterwards commenced thereupon, and is prosecuted with effect within one year next after the making thereof; there is a proviso in favor of disabled persons, who may sue within five years after the disability has been removed.
    31.-2. As to personal actions. 1. In actions on specialties and promissory notes, not negotiable, the limitation is seventeen years, with a saving that "persons legally incapable to bring an action on such bond or writing at the accruing of the right of action, may bring the same within four years after becoming legally capable."
    32.-2. Actions of account, of debt on book, on simple contract, or assumpsit, founded on an implied contract, or upon any contract in writing, not under seal, (except promissory notes not negotiable,) within six years, saving as above three years.
    33.-3. In trespass on the case, six years, but no savings.
    34.-4. Actions founded upon express contracts not reduced to writing; upon trespass; or upon the case for word; three years and no savings.
    35.-5. Actions founded on penal statutes one year after the commission of the offence.
    36.-6. A new suit must be commenced within one year after reversal of the former, or when it was arrested.
    37. Delaware. 1. As to lands. Twenty years of adverse possession of land is a bar. The general principles of the English law on this subject, have been adopted in this state.
    38.-2. As to personal actions. All actions of trespass quare clausum fregit; of detinue; trover and replevin, for taking away goods or chattels; upon account and upon the case; (other than actions between merchant and merchant, their factors and servants, relating to merchandise;) upon the case for words; of debt grounded upon any lending or contract without specially; of debt for arrearages of rent; and all actions of trespass, assault, battery, menace, wounding or imprisonment, shall be commenced and sued within three years next after the cause of such action or suit accrues, and not after.
    39. The 2d section of the same act contains a saving, in favor of persons who, at the time of the cause of action accrued, are within the age of twenty-one years; femes covert; persons of insane memory, or imprisoned. Such persons must bring their actions within one year next after the removal of such disability as aforesaid.
    40. In the 3d section of the same act, provision is made, that no person not keeping a day book, or regular book of accounts, shall be admitted to prove or require payment of any account of longer standing than one year against the estate of any person dying within the state, or if it consist of many particulars, unless every charge therein shall have accrued within three years next before the death of the deceased, and unless the truth and justice thereof shall be made to appear by one, sufficient witness; and in case of a regular book of accounts, unless such account shall have accrued or arisen within three years before the death of the deceased person.
    41. In section 6th, there is a saving of the rights or demands of infants, femes covert, persons of insane memory, or imprisoned, so their accounts be proved and their claims prosecuted within one year after the removal of such disability.
    42. By a supplementary act, it is declared, that nothing contained in this act, shall extend to any intercourse between merchant and merchant, according to the usual course of mercantile business nor to any demands founded on mortgages: bonds, bills, promissory notes, or settlements under the hands of the parties concerned.
    43. All actions upon administration, guardian and testamentary bonds, must be commenced within six years after passing the said bonds; and actions on sheriff's recognizances, within seven years after the entering into such recognizances, and not after; saving in all these cases, the rights of infants, femes covert, persons of insane memory, or imprisoned, of bringing such actions on administration, guardian or testamentary bonds, within three years after the removal of the disability, and on sheriff's recognizances within one year after such disability removed.
    44. No appeal can be taken from any interlocutory order, or final decrees of the chancellor, but within one year next after making and signing the final decree, unless the person entitled to such appeal be an infant, feme covert, non compos mentis, or a prisoner.
    45. No writ of error, can be brought upon any judgment, but within five years after the confessing, entering or rendering thereof, unless the person entitled to such writ, be an infant, feme covert, non compos mentis, or a prisoner, and then within five years exclusive of the time of such disability. Constitution, article 5, s. 13.
    46. There is no saving in favor of foreigners or citizens of other states. The courts of this state have adopted the general principles of the English law.
    47. Florida. 1. As to lands. Writs of formedon in descender, remainder, or reverter, must be brought within twenty years. Act of Nov. 10, 1828, sec. 1, Duval; 154. Infants, femes covert, persons non compos mentis, or prisoners, may. sue within ten years after disability is removed. Id. s. 2. A writ of right on seisin of ancestor or predecessor within fifty years; other possessory action on seisin of ancestor or predecessor, within forty years; real action on plaintiff's possession or seisin within thirty years. Id. sec. 3.
    48.-2. As to personal actions. All actions upon the case, other than for slander, actions for accounts, for trespass, debt, detinue, and replevin for goods and chattels, and actions of trespass quare clausum fregit, within five years. Actions of trespass, assault, battery, wounding and imprisonment, or any of them, within three years; and actions for words within one year. Id. s. 4. There is a saving in favor of infants, femes covert, persons non compos mentis, imprisoned, or beyond seas, or out of the country, who may bring suit within the same time after the disability has been removed. All actions on book accounts shall be brought within two years.
    49.-3. As to crimes. All offences not punishable with death, shall be prosecuted within two years. Act of Feb. 10, 1882, s. 78. All actions, suits and presentments upon penal acts of the general assembly, shall be prosecuted within one year. Act of Nov. 19, 1828, s. 18.
    50. Georgia. 1. As to lands. Seven years' adverse possession of lands is a bar, with a saving in favor of infants, femes covert, persons non compos mentis, imprisoned or beyond seas.
    51.-2. As to personal actions. Twenty years is a bar in personal actions, on bonds under seal; other obligations not under seal, six years; trespass quare clausum fregit, three years trespass, assault and battery, two years; slander and qui tam actions, six months. There are savings in favor of infants, femes covert, persons non compos mentis, imprisoned and beyond seas.
    52. No other savings in favor of citizens of other states or foreigners.
    53. As to crimes. In cases of murder there is no limitation. In all other criminal cases where the punishment is death or perpetual imprisonment, seven years; other felonies, four years; cases punishable by fine and imprisonment, two years. Prince's Dig. 573-579. Acts of 1767, 1813, and 1833. See 1 Laws of Geo. 33; 2 Id. 344; 3 Id. 30; Pamphlet Laws, 1833, p. 143.
    54. Illinois. 1. As to lands. No statute on this subject.
    55.-2. As to personal actions. All actions of trespass quare clausum fregit; all actions of trespass, detinue, actions sur trover, and replevin for taking away goods and chattels, all actions of account, and upon the case, other than such accounts as concern the trade of merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors and servants; all actions of debt, grounded upon any lending or contract without specialty; all actions of debt for arrearages of rent; all actions of assault, menace, battery, wounding, and imprisonment, or any of them, which shall be sued or brought, shall be commenced within the following times, and not after actions upon the case, other than for slander; actions of account, and actions of trespass, debt, detinue and replevin for goods and chattels, and actions of trespass quare clausum fregit, within five years next after the cause of action or suit, and not after; and the actions of trespass for assault, battery, wounding, imprisonment, or any of them, within three years next after cause of action or suit, and not after; and actions for slander, within one year next after the words spoken. There are no savings, by the statute, in favor of citizens of other states, or foreigners.
    56. Indiana. 1. As to lands. "No action of ejectment shall be commenced for the recovery of lands or tenements against any person or persons who may have been in the quiet and peaceable possession of the same under an adverse title for twenty years, either in his own right, or the right of any other person or persons under whom he claims; and any action of ejectment commenced against the provisions of this act shall be dismissed at the cost of the party commencing the same. Provided, however, that this act shall not be so construed as to affect any person who may be a feme covert, non compos mentis, a minor, or any person beyond the seas, within five years after such disability is removed." Rev. Code, c. 36, see. 3, January 13, 1831.
    57.-2. As to personal actions. "All actions of debt on simple contract, and for rent in arrear, action on the case, (other than slander,) actions of account, trespass quare clausum fregit, detinue, and replevin for goods and chattels, shall be commenced within five years after the cause of action accrued, and not after. All actions of trespass, for assault and battery, and for wounding and imprisonment, shall be commenced within three years, and not after." Rev. Code, 6. 81, sec. 12, January 29, 1831.
    58.-3. Crimes. "All criminal prosecutions for offences, the affixed penalty of which is three dollars, or less, shall be commenced within thirty days," &c. "All prosecutions for offences, except those the fixed penalties of which do not exceed three dollars, and except treason, murder, arson, burglary, man stealing, horse stealing, and forgery, shall be instituted within two years, &c." Revised Code, c. 26, Feb. 10, 1831.
    59.-4. Penal actions. "All actions upon any act of assembly, now or hereafter to be made, when the right is limited to the party aggrieved, shall be commenced within two years, &c., and all actions of slander shall be commenced within one year, &c., saving the right of infants, femes covert, persons non compos mentis, or without the jurisdiction of the United States, until one year after their several disabilities are removed." Sec. 12.
    60.-5. Savings. Provided, that no statute of limitation shall ever be pleaded as a bar, or operate as such on an instrument or contract in writing, whether the same be sealed or unsealed, nor to running accounts between merchant and merchant. Rev. Code, eh. 81, s. 12.
    61. And provided further, that on all contracts made in this state, if the defendant shall be without the same when the cause of action accrued, said action shall not be barred until the times above limited shall have expired, after the defendant shall have come within the jurisdiction thereof, and on all contracts made without the state, if the defendant shall have left the state or territory when the same was made, and come within the jurisdiction of this state before the cause of action accrued thereon, the plaintiff shall not be barred his right of action, until the time above limited after the said demand shall have been brought within the jurisdiction of this state. Rev. Code, ch. 81, s. 12.
    62. Kentucky. 1. As to lands. The act of limitation takes effect in a writ of right or other possessory action, in thirty years from the seisin of the demandant or his ancestors. In ejectment, in twenty years. See 1 Litt. 380, and Sessions Acts 1838-9, page 330. In the action of ejectment, there is a saving in favor of infants; persons insane or imprisoned; femes covert, to whom lands have descended during the coverture, when their cause of action accrued. These persons may sue within three years after the removal of the disability. 5 Litt. 90; Id. 97. There is no saving, in favor of non- residents or absent persons. 5 Litt. 90; 4 Bibb, 561. But when the possession has been held for seven years under a connected title in law or equity deducible of record from the commonwealth, claiming title under an adverse entry, survey or patent, no writ of ejectment or other possessory action can be commenced. In this case there is a saying in favor of infants, &c., as above, and of persons out of the United States, in the service of the United States, or of this state, who may bring actions seven years after the removal of the disability. 4 Litt. 55.
    63.-2. As to personal actions. The act of limitation operates on simple contracts (except store accounts) in five years. Torts to the person, three years. Torts, except torts to the person, five years. Slander, one year. Store accounts, one year from the delivery of each article; except in cases of the death of the creditor or debtor before the expiration of one year, when the further time of one year is allowed after such death.
    64. Savings in such actions of simple contracts, tort, slander, and upon store account, in favor of infants, femes covert, persons imprisoned or insane at the time such action accrued, who have the full time aforesaid after the removal of their respective disabilities to commence their suit. But if the defendant, in any of said personal actions, absconds, or conceals himself by removal out of the country or county where he resides when the cause of action accrues, or by any other indirect ways or means defeats or obstructs the bringing of such suit or action, such defendant shall not be permitted to plead the act of limitations. 1 Litt. 380. There is no saving in favor of non-residents or persons absent. Act of 1823, s. 3, Session Acts, p. 287.
    65. Louisiana. The Civil Code, book 3, title 23, chapter 1, section 3, provides as follows:
    66.-I. Of the prescription of one year. Art. 3499. The action of justices of the peace and notaries, and persons performing their duties, as well as constables, for the fees and emoluments which are due to them in their official capacity that of muters and instructors in the arts and sciences, for lessons which they give by the month; that of innkeepers and such others, on account of lodging and board which they furnish; that of retailers of provisions and liquors; that of workmen, laborers, and servants, for the payment of their wages; that for the payment of the freight of ships and other vessels, the wages of the officers, sailors, and others of the crew; that for the supply of wood and other things necessary for the construction, equipment, and provisioning of ships and other vessels, are prescribed by one year.
    67.-3500. In the cases mentioned in the preceding article, the prescription takes place, although there may have been a regular continuance of supplies, or of labor, or other service. It only ceases, from the time when there has been an account acknowledged, a note or bond, or a suit instituted. However, with respect to the wages of officers, sailors, and others of the crew of a ship, this prescription runs only from the day when the voyage is completed.
    68.-3501. The actions for injurious words, whether verbal or written, and that for damages caused by slaves or animals, or resulting from offences or quasi offences; that which a possessor may institute, to have himself maintained or restored to his possession, when he has been disturbed or evicted; that for the delivery of merchandise or other effects, shipped on board any kind of vessels; that for damage sustained by merchandise on board ships, or which may have happened by ships running foul of each other, are prescribed by one year.
    69.- 3502. The prescription mentioned in the preceding article, runs, with respect to the merchandise injured or not delivered from the day of the arrival of the vessel, or that on which she ought to have arrived; and in the other cases, from that on which the injurious words, disturbance, or damage were sustained.
    70.-II. Of the prescription of three years. Art. 3503. The action for arrearages of rent charge, annuities and alimony, or of the hire of movables or immovables; that for the payment of money lent; for the salaries of overseers, clerks, secretaries, and of teachers of the sciences, for lessons by the year or quarter; that of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries, for visits, operations, and medicines: that of parish judges sheriffs, clerks, and attorneys, for their fees and emoluments, are prescribed by three years, unless there be an account acknowledged, a note or bond given, or an action commenced before that time.
    71.-3504. The action of parties against their attorneys for the return of papers delivered to them for the interest of their suits, is prescribed also by three years, reckoning from the day when judgment was rendered in the suit, or from the revocation of the powers of the attorneys.
    72.-III. Of the prescription of five years. Art. 3505. Actions on bills of exchange, notes payable to order or bearer, except bank notes, those on all effects negotiable or transferable by endorsement or delivery, are prescribed by five years, reckoning from the day when these engagements were payable.
    73.-3506. The prescription mentioned in the preceding article, and those described above in the paragraphs, I. and II., run against minors and interdicted persons, reserving, however, to them their recourse against their tutors or curators. They run also against persons residing out of the state.
    74.-3507. The action of nullity or rescission of contracts, testaments, or other acts; that for the reduction of excessive donations; that for the rescission of partitions and guaranty of the portions, are prescribed by five years when the person entitled to exercise them is in the state, and ten years if he be out of it. This prescription only commences against minors after their majority.
    75.-IV. Of the prescription of ten years. Art. 3508. In general, all personal actions, except those above enumerated, are prescribed by ten years, if the creditor be present, and by twenty years, if he be absent.
    76.-3509. The action against an undertaker or architect, for defect of construction of buildings of brick or stone, is prescribed by ten years.
    77.-3610. If a master suffer a slave to enjoy his liberty for ten years, during his residence in the state, or for twenty years while out of it, he shall lose all right of action to recover possession of the slave, unless the slave be a runaway or fugitive.
    78.-3511. The rights of usufruct, use and habitation, and services, are lost, by non-use for ten years, if the person having a right to enjoy them, be in the state, and by twenty years, if he be absent.
    79.-V. Of the prescription of thirty years. Art. 3512. All actions for immovable property, or for an entire estate as a succession, are prescribed by thirty years, whether the parties be present, or absent from the state.
    80.-3513. Actions for the revindication of slaves are prescribed by fifteen years, in the same manner as in the preceding article.
    81.-VI. Of the rules relative to the prescription operating a discharge from debts. Art. 3514. In cases of prescription releasing debts, one may prescribe against a title created by himself, that is, against an obligation which be has contracted.
    82.-3515. Good faith not being required on the part of the person pleading this prescription, the creditor cannot compel him or his heirs to swear whether the debt has or has not been paid, but can only blame himself for not having taken his measures within the time directed by law; and it may be that the debtor may not be able to take any positive oath on the subject.
    83.-3516. The prescription releasing debts is interrupted by all such causes as interrupt the prescription by which property is acquired, and which have been explained in the first section of this chapter. It is also interrupted by the causes explained in the following articles.
    84.-3517. A citation served upon one joint debtor or his acknowledgment of the debt, interrupts the prescription with regard to all the others and, even their heirs. A citation served on one of the heirs of a joint debtor, or the acknowledgment of such heir, does not interrupt the prescription with regard to the other heirs, even if the debt was by mortgage, if the obligation be not indivisible. This citation or acknowledgment does not interrupt the prescription, with regard to the other co-debtors, except for that portion for which such heir is bound. To interrupt this prescription for the whole, with regard to the other co- debtors, it is necessary, either that the citations be served on all, or the acknowledgment be made by all the heirs.
    85.-3518. A citation served on the principal debtor, or his acknowledgment, interrupts the prescription on the part of the surety.
    86.-3519. Prescription does not run against minors and persons under interdiction, except in the cases specified above.
    87.-3520. Prescription runs against the wife, even although she be not separated of property by marriage contract or by authority of law, for all such credits as she brought in marriage to her husband, or for whatever has been promised to her in dower; but the husband continues responsible to her.
    88. Maine. 1. As to real actions. The writ of right is limited to thirty years writ of ancestral seisin, twenty-five years writ of entry on party's own seisin, twenty years. Stat. of Maine, eh. 62, Sec. 1, 2, 3. But by the revised statutes, all real actions are limited to twenty years, from the time the right accrues. They took effect on the first day of April, 1843. Rev. Stat. T. 10, ch. 140, Sec. 1. And writs of right and of formedon are abolished after that time. Rev. Stat. ch. 145, Sec. 1.
    89.-2. As to personal actions. When founded on simple contract, they are limited after six years; Rev. Stat. T. 10, ch. 146, Sec. 1; on specialties, twenty years. Id. Sec. 11. Personal actions founded on torts are limited to six years, except trespass for assault and battery, false imprisonment, slanderous words and libels, which are limited to two years. Id. Sec. 1.
    90.-3. As to penal actions. When brought by individuals having an interest in the penalty or forfeiture, they are limited to one year; Rev. Stat. T. 10, c. 146, Sec. 15; when prosecuted by the state, two years. Id. Sec. 16.
    91.-4. As to crimes. Prosecutions for crimes must be commenced within six years when the party charged has publicly resided within the state, except in cases of treason, murder, arson, and manslaughter. Rev. Stat. T. 12, c. 167, 15.
    92. Maryland. 1. As to lands. The statute of 21 Jac. I. c. 16, is in force in this state.
    93.-2. As to personal actions. By the Act of Assembly, 1715, c. 23, actions of account; upon the case; or simple contract; or book debt or account; and of debt not of specialty; detinue and replevin for taking away goods and chattels; and trespass quare clausum fregit; must be brought within three years ensuing the cause of action, and not after; other actions of trespass, of assault, battery, wounding and imprisonment, within one year from the time of the cause of action accruing; from these provisions are excepted, however, such accounts as concern the trade of merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors and servants which are not resident within this [province] state. This statute also enacts, that no bill, bond, judgment, or recognizance, statute merchant or of the staple, or other specialty whatsoever, (except such as shall be taken in the name or for the use of our sovereign the king, &c.) shall be "good and pleadable, or admitted in evidence" against any person of this [province] state, after the principal debtor and creditor have both been dead twelve years, or the debt or thing in action above twelve years standing.
    94. Persons laboring under the impediments of infancy, coverture, insanity or imprisonment, are not barred until five years after the disability has been removed. And when a personal action abates by the death of the defendant, the plaintiff may at any time renew his suit, provided it be commenced without delay after letters testamentary have been granted.
    95. Defendants, when absent from the state at the time the cause of action accrued, cannot compute the time of their absence in order to bar the plaintiff, but the latter may prosecute the same after the presence in the state of the persons liable thereto, within the time or times limited by the acts of limitation in such actions.
    96. Massachusetts. By the Revised Statutes, ch. 120, it is provided as follows, to wit:
    97.-1. The following actions shall be commenced within six years next after the cause of action shall accrue, and not afterwards
    98. First, all actions of debt, founded upon any contract, or liability not under seal, except such as are brought upon the judgment or decree of some court of record of the United States, or of this, or some other of the United States:
    99. Secondly, all actions upon judgments rendered in any court, not being a court of record: 100. Thirdly, all actions for arrears of rent: 101. Fourthly, all actions of assumpsit, or upon the case, founded on any contract or liability, express or implied: 102. Fifthly, all actions for waste and for trespass upon land: 103. Sixthly, all actions of replevin and all other actions for taking, detaining or injuring goods or chattels: 104. Seventhly, all other actions on the case, except actions for slanderous words and for libels. 105.-2. All actions for assault and battery, and for false imprisonment, and all actions for slanderous words and for libels, shall be commenced within two years next after the cause of action shall accrue, and not afterwards. 106.-3. All actions against sheriffs, for the misconduct or negligence of their deputies, shall be commenced within four years next after the cause of action shall accrue, and not afterwards. 107.-4. None of the foregoing provisions shall apply to any action brought upon a promissory note, which is signed in the presence of an attesting witness, provided the action be brought by the original payee, or by his executor or administrator, nor to an action brought upon any bills, notes, or other evidences of debt, issued by any bank. 108.-5. In all actions of debt or assumpsit brought to recover the balance due upon a mutual and open account current, the cause of action shall be deemed to have accrued, at the time of the last item proved in such account. 109.-6. If any person entitled to bring any of the actions before mentioned in this chapter shall, at the time when the cause of action accrues, be within the age of twenty-one years, or a married woman, insane, imprisoned, or absent from the United States, such person may bring the said actions within the times in this chapter respectively limited, after the disability shall be removed, or within six years after the disability mentioned in the preceding section. 110.-7. All personal actions on any contract, not limited by the foregoing sections, or by any other law of this commonwealth, shall be brought within twenty years after the accruing of the cause of action. 111.-8. When any person shall be disabled to prosecute an action in the courts of this commonwealth, by reason of his being an alien subject or citizen of any country at war with the United States, the time of the continuance of such war shall not be deemed any part of the respective periods, herein limited for the commencement of any of the actions before mentioned. 112.-9. If, at the time when any cause of action, mentioned in this chapter, shall accrue against any person, he shall be out of the state, the action may be commenced within the time herein limited therefor, after such person shall come into the state and if after any cause of action shall have accrued, the person against whom it has accrued shall be absent from and reside out of the state, the time of his absence shall not be taken as any part of the time limited for the commencement of the action. 113.-10. If any person, entitled to bring any of the actions, before mentioned in this chapter, or liable to any such action, shall die before the expiration of the time herein limited therefor, or within thirty days after the expiration of the said time, and if the cause of action does by law survive, the action may be commenced by or against the executor or administrator of the deceased person, as the case may be, at anytime within two years after the grant of letters testamentary or of administration, and not afterwards, if barred by the provisions of this chapter. 114.-11. If, in any action duly commenced within the time in this chapter limited and allowed therefor, the writ shall fail of a sufficient service or return, by any unavoidable accident, or by any default or neglect of the officer to whom it is committed, or if the writ shall be abated, or the action otherwise avoided or defeated, by the death of any party thereto, or for any matter of form, or if after a verdict for the plaintiff, the judgment shall be arrested, or if a judgment for the plaintiff shall be reversed on a writ of error, the plaintiff may commence a new action for the same cause, at any time within one year after the abatement or other determination of the original suit, or after the reversal of the judgment therein; and if the cause of action does by law survive, his executor or administrator may, in case of his death, commence such new action within the said one year. 115.-12. If any person, who is liable to any of the actions mentioned in this chapter, shall fraudulently conceal the cause of such action from the knowledge of the person entitled thereto, the action may be commenced, at any time within six years after the person who is entitled to bring the same, shall discover that he has such cause of action, and not afterwards. 116. Michigan. 1. As to lands. Sec. 1. In all real actions the statute of limitation takes effect as follows, to wit: In all actions for the recovery of land the statute runs after twenty years from the time the cause of action accrued, or within twenty-five years after the plaintiff or those from, by or under whom he claims, shall have been seised or possessed of the premises, except as specified below. 117.-Sec. 2. If the right or title accrued to an ancestor or predecessor of the person who brings the action or makes the entry upon the land, or to any other person from, by or under whom he claims, the said twenty-five years shall be computed from the time when the right or title so first accrued to such ancestor, predecessor or other person. 118.-Sec. 3. The right to bring an action for the recovery of land or to make an entry thereon shall be deemed first to accrue when any person is disseised, at the time of such disseisin. 119. When any person claims as heir or devisee of one who died seised, his right shall be deemed to have accrued at the time of such death; unless there is a tenancy by the curtesy or other estate, intervening after the death of such ancestor or devisor, in which case the right shall be deemed to accrue when such intermediate estate shall expire, or when it would have expired by its own limitation. 120. When there is such an intermediate estate, and in all other cases when the party claims by force of any remainder or reversion, his right, so far as it is affected by the limitation herein prescribed, shall be deemed to accrue when the intermediate or precedent estate would have expired by its own limitation, notwithstanding any forfeiture thereof for which he might have entered at an earlier time; but if the person claims by reason of any forfeiture or breach of the condition, the statute runs from the time when the forfeiture was incurred or the condition was broken. 121. In all other cases not otherwise provided for, the right shall be deemed to accrue when the claimant or the person under whom he claims first became entitled to the possession of the premises, under the title upon which the entry or action is founded. 122.- Sec. 4. If any minister or other sole corporation shall be disseised, any of his successors may enter upon the premises, or bring an action for the recovery thereof at any time within five years after death, resignation or removal of the person so disseised, notwithstanding the twenty-five years after such disseisin shall have expired. 123.-Sec. 5. If the person first entitled to make such entry or bring such action shall die within the age of twenty-one years, or be a married woman, insane, imprisoned in the state prison, or absent from the United States, and no determination or judgment shall have been had of or upon the title, right or action which accrued to him, the entry may be made or the action brought by his heirs, or any other person claiming from, by or under him, at any time within ten years after his death, notwithstanding the said twenty-five years shall have expired. 124.- Sec. 6. No person shall be deemed to have been in possession of any lands within the meaning of the foregoing provisions merely by reason of having made an entry thereon, unless he shall have continued open and peaceable possession of the premises for the space of one year next after such entry, or unless an action shall be commenced upon such entry and seisin within one year after he shall be ousted or dispossessed of the premises. R. S., p. 573 and 574.
    125. No actions for the recovery of an estate sold by an executor or administrator shall be maintained by the heir or other person claiming under the deceased testator or intestate, unless it be commenced within five years next after the sale. And no actions for any estate sold by a guardian shall be maintained by the ward or any other person claiming under him, unless it be commenced within five years after the termination of the guardianship. Except that persons out of the state and minors and others under any legal disability to sue at the time when the right of action shall first accrue, may commence such action at any time within five years after the disability is removed, or after their return to the state. R. S., p. 317, see. 35. 126.-2. As to personal actions. The following actions shall be commenced within six years next after the cause of action shall accrue and not afterwards, to wit: 127.-1st. All actions of debt founded upon any contract or liability not under seal, except such as are brought upon the judgment or decree of some court of record, or of general equity jurisdiction of the United States, or of this or some other of the United States. 128.-2d. All actions upon judgments rendered in any court other than those above excepted. 129.-3rd. All actions for arrears of rent. 130.-4th. All actions of assumpsit or upon the case founded on any contract or liability express or implied. 131.-6th. All actions for waste. 132.-6th. All actions of replevin and trover and all other actions for taking, detaining, or injuring goods and chattels. 133.-7th. All other actions on the case, except actions for slanderous words or for libels. 134.-Sec. 2. All actions for trespass upon land or for assault and battery, and for false imprisonment, and all actions for slanderous words and for libels, shall be commenced within two years next after the cause of action shall, accrue and ]lot afterwards. 135.-Sec. 3. All actions against sheriffs for the misconduct or neglect of their deputies shall be commenced within four years next after the cause of action shall accrue and not afterwards. 136.-Sec. 4. None of the foregoing provisions shall apply to any action brought, upon any bills, notes or other evidence of debt issued by any bank. 137.-Sec. 5. In all actions of debt or assumpsit brought to recover the balance due upon mutual and open account current the cause of action shall be deemed to have accrued at the time of the last item proved in such account. 138.-Sec. 6. If any person entitled to bring any of the actions before mentioned in this chapter shall, at the time when the cause of action accrues, be within the age of twenty-one years, or a married woman, insane, imprisoned in the state prison, or absent from the United States, such person may bring the said actions within the time in this chapter respectively limited after the disability shall be removed. 139.-Sec. 7. All personal actions or any contract not limited by the foregoing sections or by an other laws of this state shall be brought within twenty years after the accruing of the cause of action. 140.-Sec. 8. When any person shall be disabled to prosecute an action in the courts of this state by reason of his being an alien subject or citizen of any country at war with the United States, the time of the continuance of such war shall not be deemed any part of the respective period herein limited for the commencement of an of the actions before mentioned. 141.-Sec. 9. If at the time when a cause of action mentioned in this chapter shall accrue against any person, he shall be out of the state, the action may be commenced within the time herein limited therefor after such person shall come into this state. And if, after any cause of action shall have accrued, the person against whom it has accrued shall be absent from, and reside out of the state, the time of his absence shall not be taken as any part of the time limited for the commencement of the action. 142.-Sec. 10. If any person entitled to bring any of the actions before mentioned shall die before the expiration of the time herein limited or within thirty days after the expiration of the said time, and if the cause of action does by law survive; the action may be commenced by or against the executor or administrator of the deceased person as the case may be, at any time within two years after the granting of the letters testamentary or of administration, and not afterwards, if barred by the provisions of this chapter. 143.-Sec. 11. If in any action, duly commenced within the time limited in this chapter and allowed therefor, the writ shall fail of a sufficient service or return, by an unavoidable accident or by any default or neglect of the officer to whom it is committed, or if the suit shall be abated, or the action otherwise avoided or defeated by the death of any party thereto, or for any other matter of form, or if after a verdict for the plaintiff the judgment shall be arrested, or if a judgment for the plaintiff shall be reversed on a writ of error, the plaintiff may commence a new action for the same cause at any time within one year after the abatement or other determination of the original suit or after the reversal of the judgment therein. And if the cause of action does by law survive, the executor or administrator may in case of his death commence such action within said one year. 144.-Sec. 12. In case of the fraudulent concealment of the right of action, such action may be commenced at any time within six years after the person entitled to the same shall discover that he has such cause of action. R. S., p. 576, 577 and 578. 145.-Sec. 21. All actions and suits for any penalty or forfeiture on any penal statute brought by any person to whom the penalty or forfeiture is given in the whole or in part, shall be commenced within one year next after the offence was committed, and not afterwards. 146.-Sec. 22. If the penalty or forfeiture is given in whole or in part to the state, a suit therefor may be commenced by or in behalf of the state at any time within two years after the offence was committed and not afterwards. Rev. Stat., p. 579. 147.-3. As to crimes. The statute of limitations in criminal cases takes effect after six years from the time the offence was committed; but any period during which the party charged was not usually and publicly resident within this state shall not be reckoned as a part of the six years. In case of murder, however, there is no limitation. Rev. Stat., p. 666, sec. 15. 148. Mississippi. 1. As to lands. Real, possessory, ancestral and mixed actions for lands, tenements, or hereditaments must be instituted within twenty years next after the right or title thereto, or cause of action accrued. How. & Hutch. page 568, ch. 43, sec. 88, L. 1822. Right or title of entry is barred after twenty years. Id. sec. 89, L. 1822. Fifty years actual possession uninterruptedly continued by occupancy, descent, conveyance or otherwise, vests a complete title in the occupier. Id. sec. 90, L. 1822. Real estate, which may have escheated to the state, must be claimed within two years next after the inquisition, or it will be sold. How. & Hutch. page 263, ch. 34, sec. 84, L. 1822. If real estate escheat to the state and be sold, the moneys arising from such sale may be claimed within twelve years next from the day of such sale; Id. sec. 87, L. 1822; and moneys arising from sale of personal estate, escheated, may be claimed within six years next after the sale thereof. Ib. All persons claiming real estate escheated, either by descent or otherwise, must appear and traverse the office of inquest within twelve years from the date thereof, and in case of personal estate, within six years, or they will be forever barred of their claim. Id. sec. 88, L. 1822. 149.-2. As to personal actions. 1st. On contracts. These are, 1. Actions on simple contracts must be commenced and sued within six years next after the cause of action accrued. Except such actions as concern the trade or merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors, agents and servants where there are mutual dealings and mutual credits. How. & Hutch. page. 569, ch. 43, sec. 91, L. 1822 How. Rep. 2, 786. 150. Actions founded upon any account for goods, wares or merchandise, sold and delivered, or for any articles charged in any store account, must be commenced and sued within three years next after cause of action accrued. Post-dating any article in such account is highly penal. How. & Hutch. page 570, ch. 43, sec. 98, L. 1822. 151.-2. Actions on specialties must be commenced and sued within sixteen years next after cause of action accrued. How. & Hutch. page 569, ch. 43, sec. 95, L. 1822. 152. Judgments recovered in any court of record as well without as within this state, may be revived by scire facias, or an action of debt brought thereon within twenty years next after the date of such judgment. How. & Hutch. pages 570 and. 574, ch. 43, sec. 96 and 111, Laws 1822 and 1830. This extends to decrees of the chancery court. How. Rep. 4, 31. 153.-3. Suits on bonds, or recognizances against sureties for public officers must be commenced and sued within five years next after cause of action accrued. Id. sec. 97, page 570, L. 1822. 154.-2d. On torts. Actions for torts affecting the person must be sued within two years next after cause accrued. How. & Hutch. page 569, ch. 43, sec. 92, L. 1822. Actions of slander for words spoken or written must be sued within one year. Id. sec. 93, L. 1822; How. Rep. 2, 698. Actions of trespass quare clausum fregit; trespass; detinue; trover; replevin, for taking away goods and chattels, actions on the case, must be sued within six years next after cause of action accrued. Id. How. & Hutch. page 569, ch. 43, sec. 91, L. 1822. 155.-3. As to penal actions. Penal actions are limited to twelve months from the time of incurring the fine or forfeiture. (Persons absconding or fleeing from justice are excepted:) How. & Hutch 49, see. 19, L. 1822. 156.-4. As to crimes. Indictments, presentments or informations for offences (crimes) must be found or exhibited within one year next after the offence committed, (except for willful murder, arson, forgery, counterfeiting and larceny; as to which there is no limitation.) How. & Hutch. p. 668, ch. 49; sec. 19, L. 1822. 157. Missouri. 1. As to lands. That from henceforth no person or persons whatsoever shall make entry into any lands, tenements or hereditaments, after the expiration of twenty years next after his, her or their right or title to the same first descended or accrued; nor shall any person or persons whatsoever have or maintain any writ of right, or any other real or possessory writ or action for any lands, tenements, or hereditaments of the seisin or possession of him, her or them, his, her or their ancestors or predecessors, nor declare or allege any other seisin or possession of him, her or them, his, her or their ancestors or predecessors, than within twenty years next before such writ, action, or suit, so hereafter to be sued, commenced or brought. Act of 1848. Infants, femes covert, persons of unsound memory, imprisoned, beyond seas, or without the jurisdiction of the United States, may sustain such actions commenced within twenty years after the disability has been removed. 158.-2. As to personal actions. In all actions upon the case (other than for slander;) actions for accounts, (other than such accounts as concern the trade of merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors and servants;) actions for debt, grounded upon any lending or contract without specialty, or of debt for arrearages of rent; and actions of trespass quare clausum fregit, shall be brought within five years after the cause of action shall accrue. 159. All actions upon accounts for goods, wares and merchandise sold and delivered, or for any article in any store account; all actions of trespass vi et armis, assault and battery, and imprisonment, shall be brought within two years after the cause of action shall accrue. 160. Actions on the case for words, one year after the words spoken; and writs of error shall be brought within five years after the judgment or order of complaint shall be rendered and not after. Act of July 4, 1807. 161. The plaintiff may within one year commence a new suit when a former judgment has been reversed, or the plaintiff has suffered a nonsuit. 162.-3. As to criminal actions. Actions, suits, indictments, or informations, (if the punishment be fine and imprisonment,) must be brought within two years after the offence has been committed, and not after. 163. New Hampshire. 1. As to lands. No action can be maintained for the recovery of lands, unless upon a seisin within twenty years, except by persons under disability, that is, by those under twenty-one years of age, femes covert, non compos mentis, imprisoned, or without the limits of the United States, who may sue within five years after the disability has been removed. 164.-2. As to personal actions. Actions in general are limited to be brought within six years after they have accrued; but actions of trespass, assault and battery, are limited to three years and actions of slander to two. Infants, femes covert, persons imprisoned, or beyond sea, without the limits of the United States, or non compos mentis, may bring an action within the same time, after the disability has been removed. When the defendant has left the state before the action accrued, and left no property there which could have been attached, then the whole time is allowed after his return. 165. New Jersey. 1. As to lands. By the act of June 5, 1787, it was enacted, 166.-1. At the aforesaid date, that sixty years actual possession of lands, tenements or other real estate uninterruptedly continued by occupancy, descent, conveyance or otherwise, in whatever way or manner such possession might have commenced or been continued, shall vest a full and complete right and title in every actual possessor or occupier of such lands, tenements or other real estate, and shall be a good and sufficient bar to all claims that may be made or actions commenced, by any person or persons whatsoever for the recovery of such lands, &c. 167.-2. And that thirty years' actual possession of lands, &c. uninterruptedly continued as aforesaid, wherever such possession commenced or is founded upon a proprietary right duly laid thereon, and recorded in the surveyor general's office of the division in which such location was made, or in the secretary's office, agreeably to law; or, wherever such possession was obtained by a fair bona fide purchase of such land, &c. of any person in possession, and supposed to have a legal right and title thereto, or of the agent or agents of such person or persons, shall be a good and sufficient bar to all prior locations, rights, titles, conveyances or claims whatever, not followed by actual possession as aforesaid, and shall vest an absolute right and title in the actual possessor or occupier of all such lands, &c. 168. Provided, That if any person or persons having a right or title to lands, &c. shall, at the time of the said right or title first descended or accrued, be within twenty-one years of age, feme covert, non compos, imprisoned, or without the United States, then such person or persons, and his heir or heirs may, notwithstanding the aforesaid times are expired, be entitled to his or their action for the same, so as such person or persons, or his or their heirs, commence or sue forth his or their actions within five years, after his or their full age, discoverture, coming of sound mind, enlargement out of prison, or coming within any of the United States, and at no other time. 169. And provided that any citizens of this, or any of the United States, and his or their heirs, having such right, &c. may, notwithstanding the aforesaid times expired, commence his or their action for such lands, &c., at any time within five years next after the passing of this act, and not afterwards. 170. By the act of February 7, 1799, s. 9, it is enacted, that no person who now hath, or hereafter may have, any right or title of entry, into lands, tenements or hereditaments, shall make entry therein, but within twenty years next after such right or title shall accrue, and such person shall be barred from any entry afterwards. 171. Provided, That the time during which the person who hath or shall have such right or title of entry shall have been under the age of twenty- one years, feme covert, or insane, shall not be computed as part of the said limited period of twenty years. 172. By section 10, of the same act, from and after the first day of January, 1803, every real, possessory, ancestral, mixed or other action for any lands, tenements or hereditaments, shall be brought or instituted within twenty years next after the, right or title thereto or cause of such action shall accrue, and not after. 173. Provided, That the time during which the person who hath or shall have such right or title or cause of action, shall have been under the age of twenty-one years, feme covert, or insane, shall not be computed as part of the said twenty years. 174.-Section 11. That if a mortgagee and those under him be in possession, of lands, &c. contained in the mortgage or any part thereof, for twenty years after default of payment, then the right or equity of redemption therein, shall be barred, forever. 175.-Section 13. That no person or persons, bodies politic or corporate, shall be sued or impleaded by the state of New Jersey, for any land, &c. or any rents, revenues, or profits thereof, but within twenty years after the right, title or cause of action to the same shall accrue and not after. 176.-2. As to personal actions. It is enacted that all actions of trespass quare clausum fregit; trespass; detinue; trover; replevin; debt, founded on any lending or contract without specialty, or for arrearages of rent due on a parol demise; of account, (except such actions as concern the trade of merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors, agents and servants;) and on the case, (except actions for slander,) shall be commenced and sued within six years next after the cause of such actions shall have accrued, and not after. That all actions of trespass for assault, menace, battery, wounding and imprisonment, or any of them, shall be commenced and sued within four years next after the cause of such actions shall have accrued and not after. That every action upon the case for words, shall be commenced and sued within two years next after the words spoken, and not after. Persons within the age of twenty-one years, femes covert or insane, may institute such actions within such time as is before limited after his or her coming to or being of full age, discoverture, or sane memory, 177. The act of February 7, 1799, s. 6, provides that every action of debt, or covenant for rent, or arrearages of rent, founded upon lease under seal; debt on any bill or obligation for the payment of money only, or upon any award, under the hands and seals of arbitrators, for the payment of money only, shall be commenced and sued within sixteen years next after the cause of such action shall have accrued, and not after; but if any payment shall have been made on any such lease, specialty or award, within or after the said period of sixteen years, then an action, instituted on such lease, specialty or award, within sixteen years after such payment, shall be effectual in law, and not after. Provided, That the time during which the person, who is or shall be entitled to any of the actions specified in this section, shall have been within the age of twenty-one years, feme covert, or insane, shall not be taken or computed as part of the said limited period of sixteen years. 178. As to crimes. By the statute passed February 17,1829, Harr. Comp. 243, all indictments for offences punishable with death, (except murder,) must be found within three years, and all offences not punishable with death, must be brought within two years; except, as to both, where the offender flies. 179.-4. As to penal actions. By the statute of February 7, 1799, Rev. Laws, 410, all popular and qui tam actions, and also all actions on penal statutes by the party grieved, must be brought within two years. 180. New York. The provisions limiting the time of commencing actions, are contained in the Revised Statutes, part 3, chapter 4, tit. 2, and are substantially as follows: 181.-1. As to lands. The people of this state will not sue or implead any person for, or in respect to any lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or for the issues or the profits thereof, by reason of any right or title of the said people to the same, unless, 1. Such right shall have accrued within twenty years before any suit, or other proceeding for the same shall have been commenced; or unless, 2. The said people or those from whom they claim, shall have received the rents and profits of such real estate, or some part thereof, within the said space of twenty years. Grantees of the state cannot recover, if the state could not; and when patents granted by the state are declared void for fraud, a suit may be brought at any time within twenty years thereafter. 182. No action for the recovery of any lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or for the recovery of the possession thereof, shall be maintained, unless it appear that the plaintiff, his ancestor, predecessor or grantor, was seised or possessed of the premises in question within twenty years before the commencement of such action. 183. No avowry or cognizance of title of real estate, or to any rents or services, shall be valid, unless it appear that the person making the avowry, or the person in whose right the cognizance is made, or the ancestor, predecessor, or grantor of such person, was seised or possessed of the premises in question, within twenty years before committing the act, in defence of which the avowry or cognizance is made. 184. No entry upon real estate shall be deemed sufficient or valid as a claim, unless an action be commenced thereupon within one year after the making of such entry, and within twenty years from the time when, the right of making such entry accrued. 185. All writs of scire facias upon fines, heretofore levied, of any manors, lands, tenements, or hereditaments, shall be sued out within twenty years next after the title or cause of action first descended or fallen, and not after that period. 186. If any person entitled to commence any action as above specified, or to make any entry, avowry, or cognizance, be at the time such title shall first descend or accrue, either, 1. Within the age of twenty-one years or, 2. Insane; or, 3. Imprisoned on any criminal charge or in execution upon some conviction of a criminal offence for any term less than for life; or, 4. A married woman; the time during which such disability shall continue shall not be deemed any portion of the time above limited, for the commencement of such suit, or the making such entry, avowry, or cognizance; but such person may bring such action, or make such entry, avowry, or cognizance, after the said time so limited, and within ten years after such disability removed and not after. In case of the death of the person entitled to such action, &c., before any determination or judgment in the case, his heirs may institute the same within ten years after his death, but not after. Rev. Statutes, part 3, c. 4, tit. 2, article 1. 187. The 68th section of the act "to simplify and abridge the practice, pleadings and proceedings of the courts of this state," (New York,) passed the 12th of April 1848, known as the Code of Procedure, enacts that the provisions of the Revised Statutes, contained in the article entitled, "Of the time of commencing actions relating property," shall, until otherwise provided by statute, continue in force, and be applicable to actions for the recovery of real property. 188.-2. Other actions than for the recovery of real property, and actions already commenced, or cases where the right of action has accrued, to which the statutes in force when the said act was passed shall be applicable, according to the subject of the action, and without regard to the form, must be commenced within the times as provided for in part 2, t. 2, c. 3 and 4, of the code of procedure in the following sections, namely:
     Sec. 70. Within twenty years:
     1. An action upon a judgment or decree of any court of the United States, or of any state or territory within the United States. 2. An action upon a sealed instrument.
     Sec. 71. Within six years:
     1. An action upon a contract, obligation or liability, express or implied; excepting those mentioned in section seventy.
     2. An action upon a liability created by statute, other than a penalty or forfeiture.
     3. An action for trespass upon real property.
     4. An action for taking, detaining or injuring any goods or chattels, including actions for the specific recovery of personal property.
     5. An action for criminal conversation, or for any other injury to the person or rights of another, not arising on contract, and not hereinafter enumerated.
     6. An action for relief, on the ground of fraud; the cause of action in such case not to be deemed to have accrued, until the discovery by the aggrieved party, of the facts constituting the fraud.
     Sec. 72. Within three years:
     1. An action against a sheriff or coroner, upon a liability incurred by the doing of an act in his official capacity, and in virtue of his office, or by the omission of an official duty; including the non-payment of money collected upon an execution. But this section shall not apply to an action for an escape.
     2. An action upon a statue, for a penalty or forfeiture, where the action is given to the party aggrieved, or to such party and the people of this state, except where the statute imposing it prescribes a different limitation.
     Sec. 73. Within two years:
     1. An action for libel, slander, assault, battery, or false imprisonment.
     2. An action upon a statute, for a forfeiture or penalty to the people of this state.
     Sec. 74. Within one year:
     1. An action against a sheriff or other officer, for the escape of a prisoner arrested, or imprisoned on civil process.
     Sec. 75. In an action brought to recover a balance due upon a mutual, open and current account, where there have been reciprocal demands between the parties, the cause of action shall be deemed to have accrued from the time of the last item in the account, on the adverse side.
     Sec. 76. An action upon a statute for a penalty or forfeiture, given in whole or in part to any person who will prosecute for the same, must be commenced within one year after the commission of the offence, and if the action be not commenced within the year, by a private party, it may be commenced within two years thereafter, in behalf of the people of this state, by the attorney-general, or the district attorney of the county where the offence was committed.
     Sec. 77. An action for relief, not hereinbefore provided for, must be commenced within ten years after the cause of action shall have accrued.
     Sec. 78. The limitations prescribed in this title shall apply to actions brought in the name of the people of this state or for their benefit, in the same manner as to actions by private parties.
     Sec. 79. An action shall not be deemed commenced, within the meaning of this title, unless it appear:
     1. That the summons or other process therein was duly served upon the defendants, or one of them; or
     2. That the summons was delivered, with the intent that it should be actually served, to the sheriff of the county in which the defendants, or one of them, usually or last resided; or, if a corporation be defendant, to the sheriff of the county in which such corporation was established by law, or where its general business was transacted, or where it kept an office for the transaction of business.
     Sec. 80. If, when the cause of action shall accrue against a person, he be out of the state, the action may be commenced within the term herein limited, after his return to the state; and if, after the cause of action shall have accrued, he depart from and reside out of the state, the time of his absence shall not be part of the time limited for the commencement of the action.
     Sec. 81. If a person entitled to bring an action, except for a penalty or forfeiture, or against a sheriff or other officer for an escape be at the time the cause of action accrued, either:
     1. Within the age of twenty-one years; or,
     2. Insane; or,
     3. Imprisoned on a criminal charge, or in execution under the sentence of a criminal court, for a term less than his natural life; or,
     4. A married woman: The time of such disability shall not be part of the time limited for the commencement of the action.
     Sec. 82. If a person entitled to bring an action, die before the expiration of the time limited for the commencement thereof, and the cause of action survive, his representatives may commence the action, after the expiration of that time, and within one year from his death.
     Sec. 83. When a person shall be an alien, subject or citizen of a country at war with the United States, the time of the continuance of the war shall not be part of the period limited for the commencement of the action.
     Sec. 84. If an action shall be commenced within the time prescribed therefor, and a judgment therein for the plaintiff be reversed, on appeal, the plaintiff, or if be die and the cause of action survive, his heirs or representatives may commence a new action within one year after the reversal.
     Sec. 85. When the commencement of an action shall be stayed by injunction, the time of the continuance of the injunction shall not be part of the time limited for the commencement of the action.
     Sec. 86. No person shall avail himself of a disability, unless it existed when his right of action accrued.
     Sec. 87. When two or more disabilities shall exist, the limitation shall not attach until they all be removed.
     Sec. 88. This title shall not affect actions to enforce the payment of bills, notes, or other evidences of debt issued by moneyed corporations, or issued or put in circulation as money.
     Sec. 89. This title shall not affect actions against directors or stockholders of a moneyed corporation, to recover a penalty or forfeiture imposed, or to enforce a liability created by the second title of the chapter of the Revised Statutes, entitled "Of Incorporations;" but such actions must be brought within six years after the discovery, by the aggrieved party, of the facts upon which the penalty or forfeiture attached, or the liability was created.
     Sec. 90. Where the time for commencing an action arising on contract shall have expired, the cause of action shall not be deemed revived by an acknowledgment or new promise, unless the same be in writing, subscribed by the party to be charged thereby. 189. North Carolina. By the Revised Statutes, chapter 65, it is provided as follows, to wit: 190. 1. As to lands. 1. That no person or persons nor their heirs, which hereafter shall have any right or title to any lands, tenements, or hereditaments, shall thereunto enter or make any claim, but within seven years next after his, her, or their right or title descended or accrued, and in default thereof, such person or persons, so not entering or making claim, shall be utterly excluded and disabled from any entry or claim thereafter to be made: Provided, nevertheless, that if any person or persons, that is or hereafter shall be entitled to any right or claim of lands, tenements or hereditaments, shall be, at the time the said right or title first descended, accrued, come or fallen, within the age of twenty-one years, feme covert, non compos mentis, imprisoned or beyond seas, that then such person or persons shall and may, notwithstanding the said seven years be expired, commence his, her or their suit, or make his, her, or their entry, as he, she, or they might have done before this act, so as such person or persons shall, within three years next after full age, discoverture, coming of sound mind, enlargement out of prison, or persons beyond seas, within eight years after the title or claim becomes due, take benefit and sue for the same, and at no time after the times or limitations herein specified; but that all possessions, held without suing such claim as aforesaid, shall be a perpetual bar against all, and all manner of persons whatsoever, that the expectation of heirs may not, in a short time, leave much land unpossessed, and titles so perplexed, that no man will know of whom to take or buy land. Provided also, that if in any action of ejectment for the recovery of any lands, tenements or hereditaments, judgment be given for the plaintiff, and the same be reversed for error, or a verdict pass for the plaintiff, and, upon matter alleged in arrest of judgment, the judgment be given against the plaintiff that he take nothing by his plaint, writ or bill, or a verdict be given against the plaintiff, in all such cases the party plaintiff, his heirs or executors, as the case shall require, may commence a new action or suit from time to time, within one year after such judgment reversed, or judgment given against the plaintiff. 191.- 2. Where any person or persons, or the person or persons under whom he, she, or they claim, shall have been, or shall continue to be, in possession of any lands, tenements or hereditaments whatsoever, under titles derived from sales, made either by creditors, executors or administrators of any person deceased, or by husbands and their wives, or by endorsement of patents or other colorable title, for the space of twenty-one years, all such possessions of lands, tenements or, hereditaments, under such title, shall be and are hereby ratified, confirmed and declared to be a good and legal bar, against the entry of any person or persons, under the right or claim of the state, to all intents and purposes whatsoever; Provided, nevertheless, that the possession so set up shall have been ascertained and identified under known and visible lines or boundaries. 192.-2. As to personal actions. 3. All actions of trespass, detinue, actions sur trover and replevin for taking away of goods and chattels, all actions of account and upon the case, all actions of debt for arrearages of rent, all actions of debt grounded upon any lending or contract without specialty, and all actions of assault, menace, battery, wounding, and imprisonment, or any of them, which shall be sued or brought, shall be commenced or brought within the time and limitation in this act expressed, and not after; that is to say, actions of account render, actions upon the case, actions of debt for arrearages of rent, actions of debt upon simple contract, actions of detinue, replevin, and trespass either for goods and chattels or quare clausum fregit, within three years next after the cause of such action or suit, and not after; except such accounts as concern the trade of merchandise, between merchant and merchant, and their factors, or servants; and the said actions of trespass, of assault and battery, wounding, imprisonment, or any of them, within one year after the cause of such action or suit, and not after; and the said actions upon the case for words, within six months after the words spoken, and not after. 193.-4. Provided, nevertheless, that if, on any of the said actions or suits, judgment be given for the plaintiff, and the same be reversed by error, or a verdict pass for the plaintiff, and upon matter alleged in arrest of judgment, the judgment be given against the plaintiff, that he take nothing by his plaint, writ or bill; or if any of the said actions shall be brought by original writ, and the defendant cannot be attached or legally served with process, in all such cases, the party plaintiff, his heirs, executors or administrators, as the case shall require, may commence a new action or suit, from time to time, within a year after such judgment reversed, or such judgment given against the plaintiff, or till the defendant can be attached or served with the process, so as to compel him to appear and answer. And provided further, that if any person or persons, that is or shall be entitled to any such action or trespass, detinue, action sur trover, replevin, actions of accompt and upon the case, actions of debt for arrearages of rent, actions of debt grounded upon any lending or contract without specialty, actions of assault, menace, battery, wounding, and imprisonment, actions of trespass quare clausum fregit, actions upon the case for slanderous words, be, or shall be, at the time of any such cause of action given or accrued, fallen or come, within the age of twenty-one years, feme covert, non compos mentis, imprisoned or beyond the seas, then such person or persons shall be at liberty to bring the same actions, so as they bring the same within such times as are before limited, after their coming to or being of full age, discovert, of sound memory, at large or returned from beyond seas, as other persons having no such impediment might have done. And provided further, that when any person or persons, against whom there is cause of action, shall be beyond sea at the time of such cause of action given or accrued, fallen or come, the person, who shall have such cause of action, may bring his action against them within such time or times as are hereinbefore limited, for bringing such actions after their return. 194.-5. The limitation of actions shall apply to all bonds, bills, and other securities made transferable by law, after the assignment or endorsement thereof, in the same manner as it operates against promissory notes. 195.-3. As to penal Actions. 6. All actions and suits to be brought on any penal act of the general assembly, for the recovery of the penalty therein set forth, shall be brought within three years after the cause of such action or suit shall or may have accrued, and not after: Provided, that this act shall not affect the time of bringing suit on any penal act of the general assembly, which hath a time limited therein for bringing the same. 196. Ohio. 1. As to lands. Twenty-one years adverse possession of lands operates a bar, with a saving in favor of infants, femes covert, persons insane, imprisoned or beyond the sea, when the right of action accrues. And if a person shall have left the state, and remain out of the same at the time the cause of action accrued; or shall have left the state or county at any time during the period of limitation, (that is, after the right of action has accrued,) and remain out of the same in a place unknown to the person having the right of action, suit may be brought at any time within the period of limitation, after the return of such person to the state or county. 197.-2. As to personal actions. 1st. Actions upon the case, covenant and debt founded upon a specialty, or any agreement, contract or promise in writing, may be brought within fifteen years after the cause of action shall have accrued. 198.-2d. Actions upon the case and debt founded upon any simple contract, not in writing, and actions on the case for consequential damages, within six years. 199.-3d. Actions of trespass upon property, real or personal, detinue, trover and replevin, within four years. 200.-4th. Actions of trespass for any injury done to the person, actions of slander for words spoken, or for a libel, actions for malicious prosecution, and for false imprisonment; actions against officers for malfeasance or nonfeasance in office, and actions of debt qui tam, within one year. 201.-5th. Actions for forcible entry and detainer, or forcible detainer only, within two years. 202.-6th. All other actions within four years; and all penalties and forfeitures given by statute and limited by the statute, within the times so limited. 203.-7th. Infants, femes covert, persons insane or imprisoned, entitled to an action of ejectment, may, after the twenty-one years have elapsed, bring their actions within ten years after such disability removed. They may bring all other actions, within the respective times limited for bringing such actions, after the disability removed. 204.-8th. Actions, founded on contracts between persons resident at the time of the contract without this state, which are barred by the laws of the country where the contract was made, are barred in the courts of this state. 205.-9th. In all actions on contracts express or implied, in case of payment of an part, principal or interest, acknowledgment of an existing liability, debt or claim, or any promise to pay the same, within the time herein limited, the action may be commenced within the time limited after such payment, acknowledgment or promise. 206.-10th. If judgment be arrested or reversed, the suit abate or the plaintiff become nonsuit, and the time limited shall have expired, the plaintiff may bring a new action within one year after such arrest, reversal, abatement or nonsuit. 207.-11th. A person who has left the state, or resides out of it, or whose place of residence is unknown although in the state, at the time the cause of action accrues, may be sued within the time limited by the act, after his return or to removal the state, or his place of residence, if in the state, becomes known. O. Stat. vol. 29, 214; Act of Feb. 18, 1831. Took effect, June 1, 1831. Swan's Col. Laws, 553, 4, 5, 6. 208. This act only operates upon causes of action accruing after the act took effect, and all causes of action previously subsisting are governed by the statutes (and there have been several) in force when the respective causes of action accrued, none of the statutes being retrospective in their operation. 7 O. R. p. 2, 235, West's Adm'r. v. Hymer; Id. 153, Hazlett et al. v. Crutchfield et al.; 6 Id. 96, Bigelow's Ex'r. v. Bigelow's Adm'r. 209.-3. As to penal actions. Prosecutions for any forfeitures under a penal statute, must be instituted within two years, unless otherwise specially provided for. 210. Pennsylvania. 1. As to lands. From henceforth no person or persons whatsoever, shall make entry into any manors, lands, tenements or hereditaments, after the expiration of twenty-one years next after his, her or their right or title to the same first descended or accrued; nor shall any person or persons whatsoever have or maintain any writ of right, or any other real or possessory writ or action, for any manor, lands, tenements or hereditaments, of the seisin or possession of him, her or themselves, his, her, or their ancestors, or predecessors, nor declare or allege any other seisin or possession of him, her or themselves, his, her or their ancestors or predecessors, than within twenty-one years next before such writ, action, or suit so hereafter to be sued, commenced or brought. Act of March 26, 1785, s. 2, 2 Smith's Laws Pa. 299. 211. Section 4, provides, that if any person or persons having such right or title be, or shall be at the time such right or title first descended or accrued, within the age of twenty-one years, feme covert, non compos mentis, imprisoned or beyond the seas, or from and without the United States of America, then such person or persons, and the heir or heirs of such person or persons, shall and may, notwithstanding the said twenty-one years be expired, bring his or their action, or make his or their entry, as he, she or, they might have done, before the passing of this act, so as such person or persons, or the heir or heirs of such person or persons, shall within ten years next after attaining full age, discoverture, soundness of mind, enlargement out of prison, or coming into the said United States, take benefit of or sue for the same, and no time after the said ten years; and in case such person or persons shall die within the said term of ten years, under any of the disabilities aforesaid, the heir or heirs of such person or persons shall have the same benefit, that such person or persons could or might have had; by living until the disabilities should, have ceased or been removed; and if any abatement happen in any proceeding or proceedings upon such right or title, such proceeding or proceedings may be renewed and continued, within three years from the time of such abatement, but not afterward. 212. By the act of March 11, 1815, the provision above contained, so far as the same relates to persons beyond the seas, and from and without the United States of America, is repealed. 213.-2. As to personal actions. All actions of trespass quare clausum fregit, all actions of detinue, trover and replevin, for taking away goods and cattle, all actions upon account, and upon the case, (other than such accounts as concern the trade of merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors or servants,) all actions of debt, grounded upon any lending or contract without specialty, all actions of debt for arrearages of rent, except the proprietaries' quit rents, and all actions of trespass, of assault, menace, battery, wounding and imprisonment, or any of them, which shall be sued or brought at any time after the five and twentieth day of April, which shall be in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and thirteen, shall be commenced and sued within the time and limitation hereafter expressed, and not after; that is to say, the said actions upon the case, other than for slander, and the said actions for account, and the said actions for trespass, debt, detinue, and replevin for goods or chattels, and the said actions of trespass quare clausum fregit, within six years next after the cause of such actions or suit, and not after. And the said actions of trespass, of assault, menace, battery, wounding, imprisonment, or any of them, within two years next after the cause of such actions or suit, and not after. And the said actions upon the case for words, within one year next after the words spoken, and not after. Act. of March 27, 1713, s. 1. 214. If in any of the said actions or suits, judgment be given for the plaintiff and the same be reversed by error, or a verdict passed for the plaintiff, and upon matter alleged in arrest of judgment, the judgment be given against the plaintiff, that he take nothing by his plaint, writ or bill, then and in every such case, the party plaintiff, his heirs, executors, or administrators, as the case may require, may commence a new action or suit, from time to time, within a year after such judgment reversed, or given against the plaintiff, as aforesaid, and not after. Id. s. 2. 215. In all actions upon the cause, for slanderous words, to be sued or prosecuted by any person or persons, in any court within this province, after the said twenty-fifth day of April next, if the jury upon trial of the issue in such action, or the jury that shall inquire of the damages, do find or assess the damages under forty shillings, then the plaintiff or plaintiffs in such action shall have and recover only so much costs as the damages so given or assessed do amount unto without any further increase of the same. Id. s. 4. 216. Provided nevertheless, that if any person or persons who is or shall be entitled to any such action or trespass, detinue, trover, replevin, actions of account, debt, actions for trespass, for assault, menace, battery, wounding or imprisonment, actions upon the case for words, be, or, at the time of any cause of such action given or accrued, fallen, or come, shall be within the age of twenty-one years, feme covert, non compos mentis, imprisoned or beyond the sea, that then such person or persons shall be at liberty to bring the same actions, so as they take the same within such times as are hereby before limited, after their coming to or being of full age, discoverture, of sound memory, at large, or returning into this province as other persons. id. s. 5. 217.-3. As to penal actions. All actions, suits, bills, indictments or information, which shall be brought for any forfeiture upon any penal act of assembly made or to be made, whereby the forfeiture is or shall be limited to the commonwealth only, shall hereafter be brought within two years after the offence was committed, and at no time afterwards, and all actions, suits, bills, or informations which shall be brought for any forfeiture upon any penal act of assembly made or to be made, the benefit and suit whereof is or shall be by the said act limited to the commonwealth, and to any person or persons that shall prosecute in that behalf, shall be brought by any person or persons that may lawfully sue for the same, within one year next after the offence was committed; and in default of such pursuit, then the same shall be brought for the commonwealth, any time within one year after that year ended; and if any action, suit, bill, indictment or information shall be brought after the time so limited, the same shall be void, and where a shorter time is limited by any act of assembly, the prosecution shall be within that time. Act of March 26, 1785, s. 6. 218. Rhode Island. 1. As to lands. It is enacted that where any person or persons, or others from whom he or they derive their titles, either by themselves, tenants or lessees, shall have been for the space of twenty years, in the uninterrupted, quiet, peaceable and actual seisin and possession of any lands, tenements or hereditaments in the, state, during the said time, claiming the same as his, her or their proper, sole and rightful estate in fee simple, such actual seisin and possession shall be allowed to give and make a good and rightful title to such person or persons, their heirs and assigns, forever; saving and excepting however, the rights and claims of persons under age, non compos mentis, feme covert, and persons imprisoned, or beyond seas, they bringing their suits for the recovery of such lands, &c., within the space of ten years next after the removal of such impediment saving also, the rights and claims of any person or persons, having any estate in reversion or remainder, expectant or dependent on any lands, &c., after the determination of the estate for years, life, &c.; such person or persons pursuing his or their title by due course of law, within ten years after his or their right of action shall accrue. 219.-2, As to personal actions. It provides that all actions upon the case, (except actions for slander,) all actions of account, (except such as concern trade and merchandise between merchant and merchant, their actors or servants,) all actions of detinue, replevin and trover, all actions of debt founded upon any contract without specialty, and all actions of debt for arrearages of rents, must be commenced within six years next after the accruing of the cause of said actions, and not after. That all actions of trespass for breaking enclosures, and all other actions of trespass for any assault, battery, wounding and imprisonment, must be commenced within four years next after the accruing of such cause of action, and not after. And that actions upon the case for words spoken, must be commenced within two years next after the words spoken, and not after. If the person against whom there is any such cause of action, at the time the same accrued, was without the limits of the state, and did not leave property or estate therein, that could, by common and ordinary process of law be attached, in that case, the person who is entitled to such action, may commence the same, within the respective periods limited in the preceding clause, after such person's return into the state. If a person, entitled to any of the before described actions, is at the time any such cause of action accrues, within the age of twenty-one, feme covert, non compos mentis, imprisoned, or beyond sea, such person may commence the same within the times respectively, limited as above, after being of full age, discovert, of sane memory, at large, or returned from beyond sea. 220.-South Carolina. 1. As to lands. By the act of 1712, s. 2, it is enacted, that if any person or persons to whom any right or title to lands, tenements or hereditaments within this province, shall hereafter descend or come, do not prosecute the same within five years after such right or title accrued, that then he or they, and all claiming under him or them, shall be forever barred to recover the same. 221. By section 5, that not only the persons who have not made claim within the time limited shall be barred, but also all persons that shall come under such as have lost their claim. 222. And by section 2, that any person or persons beyond the seas, or out of the limits of this province, feme covert, or imprisoned, shall be allowed the space of seven years to prosecute their right or title, or claim to any lands, tenements, or hereditaments in this province, after such right and title accrued to them or any of them, and at no time after the said seven years; and also, any person or persons that are under the age of twenty-one years, shall be allowed to prosecute their claims at any time within two years after they come of age, and if beyond the seas, three years." But a subsequent act, in 1778; Pub. L. 455, s. 2; as to persons under twenty-one, allows five years to prosecute their right to lands, after coming to twenty- one. 223.-2. As to personal actions. By the act of 1712, s. 6, actions of account, and upon the case, (other than case for slander, and upon such accounts as concern the trade of merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors or servants;) of debt grounded upon any lending or contract without specialty, or for arrearages of rent reserved by indenture; of covenant; of trespass, and trespass quare clausum fregit; of detinue, and of replevin for taking away of goods and chattels; must be commenced within four years next after the cause of such action or suits, and not after. Actions of trespass, of assault and battery, wounding, imprisonment, or any of them, within one year next after the cause of action; and actions on the case for words, within six months next after the words spoken, and not after. 224. There are various minute provisions in the savings, in favor of persons under age, insane, beyond seas, imprisoned, and of femes covert. 225. When the defendant is beyond seas at the time any personal action accrues, the plaintiff may sue, after his return, within such times as is limited for bringing such action. Act of 1712, s. 6. 226. Tennessee. 1. As to lands. The act of Nov. 16, 1819, c. 28, 2 Scott, 482, enacts in substance: Sec. 1. That any persons, their heirs or assigns, who shall, at the passing of the act, or at any time after, have had seven years possession of any lands, tenements, or hereditaments, which have been granted by this state, or the state of North Carolina, holding or claiming the same under a deed or deeds of conveyance, devise, grant, or other assurance, purporting to convey an estate in fee simple, and no claim by suit in law or equity effectually prosecuted shall have been set up, or made to said land, &c., within the aforesaid time, in that case, the persons, or their heirs or assigns, so holding possession, shall be entitled to keep and hold in possession, such quantity of land as shall be specified and described in his or their deed, of conveyance, devise, grant, or other assurance, as aforesaid, in preference to and against all and all manner of persons whatsoever; and any persons or their heirs, who shall neglect or have neglected, for the said term of seven years, to avail themselves of any title legal or equitable which they may have had to any lands, &c., by suit in law or equity, effectually prosecuted against the persons in possession, shall be for ever barred; and the persons so holding, their heirs. or assigns, for the term aforesaid, shall have an indefeasible title in fee simple to such lands. See 3 Am. Jur. 255. 227.-2. That no persons, or their heirs, shall maintain any action in law or equity for any lands, &c., but within seven years next after his, her, or their right to commence, have, or maintain such suit, shall have come, fallen, or accrued; and that all suits in law or equity shall be commenced and sued within seven years next after the title or cause of action accrued or fallen, and at no time after the said seven years shall have passed. 228. Persons who, when title first accrued, were within twenty-one years of age, femes covert, non compos mentis, imprisoned, or beyond the limits of the United States, or the territories thereof, may bring their action at any time, so as such suit is commenced within three years next after his, her, or their respective disabilities or death, and not after; and it is further provided, that in the construction of the savings, no cumulative disability shall prevent the bar. 229.-3. That if, in any of the said actions or suits, judgment is given for the plaintiff and is reversed for error, or verdict pass for the plaintiff, and upon matter alleged in arrest of judgment, the judgment be given against the plaintiff, that he take nothing, &c.; or, if the action be commenced by original writ, and the defendant cannot be legally attached, or served with process, in such case the plaintiff, his heirs, executors, or administrators, as the case is, may commence a new action, from time to time, within a year after such judgment reversed or given against the plaintiff, or until the defendant can be attached, or served with process, so as to compel him, her, or them to appear and answer. 230.-4. Provided, that this act shall have no bearing on the lands reserved for the use of schools. 231.-2. As to personal actions. Actions of account render; upon the case; debt for arrearages of rent; detinue; replevin; and trespass quare clausum fregit; must be brought within three years next after the cause of such action, and not after: except such accounts as concern the trade of merchandise, between merchant and merchant, and their factors or servants. Actions of trespass, assault and battery, wounding, and imprisonment, or any of them, within one year after the cause of such action, and not after: and actions of the case for words, within six months after the words spoken, and not after. Act of 1715, c. 27, s. 5. Persons who, at the time the cause of action accrued, are within the age of twenty-one years, femes covert, non compos mentis, imprisoned, or beyond seas, may bring their actions within the time above limited, after the removal of the disability.. Id. s. 9. 232. The act of 1756, c. 4, 1 Scott, 89, contains the following enactment: 1. Where the plaintiff founds his demand upon a book account for goods, wares, and merchandise, sold and delivered, or work done, and solely relies for proof of delivery of the articles upon his oath, such oath shall not be admitted to prove the delivery of any articles in the book, of longer standing than two years. 233.-2. And no such book of accounts, although proved by witnesses, shall be received in evidence for goods, &c., sold, or work done, above five years before action brought, except of persons being out of the government, or where the account shall be settled and signed by the parties. 234.-3. Creditors of any deceased person, residing in the state, shall, within two years, and out of the state, within three years, from the qualification of the executors or administrators, make demand of their respective accounts, debts, and demands, of every kind whatsoever, to such executors, and administrators, and on failure to make the demand, and bring suit within those times, shall be for ever barred; saving to infants, non compotes, and femes covert, one year to sue, after the disability removed. But if any creditor, after making demand of his debt, &c., of the executor or administrator, shall delay his suit at their special request, then the demand shall not be barred during the time of indulgence. 235. Vermont. 1. Criminal cases. Sect. 1. All actions, suits, bills, complaints, informations, or indictments, for any crime or misdemeanor, other than theft, robbery, burglary, forgery, arson, and murder, shall be brought, had, commenced, or prosecuted within three years next after the offence was committed, and not after. 236.-Sect. 2. All complaints and prosecutions for theft, robbery, burglary and forgery, shall be commenced and prosecuted within six years next after the commission of the offence, and not after. 237.-Sect. 3. If any action, suit, bill, complaint, information, or indictment, for any crime or misdemeanor, other than arson and murder, shall be brought, had, commenced, or prosecuted, after the time limited by the two preceding sections, such proceedings shall be void, and of no effect. 238.-Sect. 4. All actions and suits, upon any statute, for any penalty or forfeiture, given in whole or in part to any person who will prosecute for the same, shall be commenced within one year after the offence was committed, and not after. 239.-Sect. 5. If the penalty is given in whole or in part to the state, or to any county or town, or to the treasury thereof, a suit therefor may be commenced by or in behalf of the state, county, town or treasury, at any time within two years after the offence was committed, and not afterwards, 240.-Sect. 6. All actions upon any statute, for any penalty or forfeiture, given in whole or in part to the party aggrieved, shall be commenced within four years after the offence was committed, and not after. 241.-Sect. 7. The six preceding sections shall not apply to any bill, complaint, information, indictment or action, which is or shall be limited by any statute, to be brought, had, commenced or prosecuted within a shorter or longer time than is prescribed in these six sections; but such bill, complaint, information, indictment or other suit, shall be brought and prosecuted within the time that may be limited by such statute. 242.-Sect. 8. When any bill, complaint, information or indictment shall be exhibited in any of the cases mentioned in this chapter, the clerk of the court, or magistrate, to whom it shall be exhibited, shall, at the time of exhibiting, make a minute thereon, in writing, under his official signature, of the true day, month and year, when the same was exhibited. 243.-Sect. 9. When any action shall be commenced, in any of the cases mentioned in this chapter, the clerk or magistrate, signing the writ, shall enter upon it a true minute of the day, month and year, when the same was signed. 244.-Sect. 10. Every bill, complaint, information, indictment or writ, on which a minute of the day, month and year, shall not be made, as provided by the two preceding sections, shall, on motion, be dismissed. 245.-Sect. 11. None of the provisions of this chapter shall apply to suits against moneyed corporations, or against the directors or stockholders thereon to recover any penalty or forfeiture imposed, or to enforce any liability created by the act of incorporation or any other law; but all such suits shall be brought within six years after the discovery, by the aggrieved party, of the facts upon which such penalty or forfeiture attached, or by which such liability was created. 246.-2. Real and personal actions and rights of entry. Sec. 1. No action for the recovery of any lands, or for the recovery of the possession thereof, shall be maintained, unless such action is commenced within fifteen years next after the cause of action first accrued to the plaintiff, or those under whom he claims. 247.-Sect. 2. No person having right or title of entry into houses or lands, shall thereinto enter, but within fifteen years next after such right of entry shall accrue. 248.-Sect. 3. The right of any person to the possession of any real estate shall not be impaired or affected, by a descent being hereafter cast in consequence of the death of any person in possession of such estate. 249.-Sect. 4. The first two sections of this chapter, so far as they relate to or affect lands granted, given, sequestered or appropriated to any public, pious or charitable use, shall take effect from and after the first day of January, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and forty-two, and, until that day, the laws now in force relating to such lands, shall continue in operation. 250.-Sect. 5. The following actions shall be commenced within six years next after the cause of action accrued, and not after:
     First. All actions of debt founded upon any contract, obligation or liability, not under seal, excepting such as are brought upon the judgment or decree of some court of record of the United States, or of this or some other state:
     Second. All actions upon judgments rendered in any court not being a court of record:
     Third. All actions of debt for arrearages of rent:
     Fourth. All actions of account, assumpsit or on the case, founded on any contract or liability, express or implied:
     Fifth. All actions of trespass upon land:
     Sixth. All actions of replevin, and all other actions for taking, detaining or injuring goods or chattels:
     Seventh. All other actions on the case, except actions for slanderous words, and for libels. 251. Sect. 6. All actions for assault and battery, and for false imprisonment, shall be commenced within three years next after the cause of action shall accrue, and not afterwards. 252.-Sect. 7. All actions for slanderous words, and for libels, shall be commenced within two years next after the cause of action shall accrue, and not after. 253.-Sect. 8. All actions against sheriffs, for the misconduct or negligence of their deputies, shall be commenced within four years next after the cause of action shall accrue, and not afterwards. 254.-Sect. 9. None of the foregoing provisions shall apply to any action brought upon a promissory note, which is signed in the presence of an attesting witness but the action, in such case, shall be commenced within fourteen years next after the cause of action shall accrue thereon, and not afterwards. 255.-Sect. 10. All actions of debt or scire facias on judgment shall be brought within eight years, next after the rendition of such judgment, and all actions of debt on specialties within eight years after the cause of action accrued, and not afterwards. 256.-Sect. 11. All actions of covenant, other than the covenants of warranty, and seisin, contained in deeds of conveyance of lands, shall be brought within eight years next after the cause of action shall accrue, and not after. 257.-Sect. 12. All actions of covenant, brought on any covenant of warranty contained in any deed of conveyance of land, shall be brought within eight years next after there shall have been a final decision against the title of the covenantor in such deed; and all actions of covenant brought on any covenant of seisin, contained in any such deed, shall be brought within fifteen years next after the cause of action shall accrue, and not after. 258.-Sect. 13. When any person shall be disabled to prosecute an action in the courts of this state, by reason of his being an alien, subject or citizen of any country at war with the United States, the time of the continuance of such war shall not be deemed any part of the respective periods herein limited for the commencement of any of the actions before mentioned. 259.-Sect. 14. If, at the time when any cause of action of a personal nature, mentioned in this chapter, shall accrue against any person, he shall be out of the state, the action may be commenced, within the time herein limited therefor, after such person shall come into the state; and if, after any cause of action shall have accrued, and before the statute has run, the person against whom it has accrued, shall be absent from and reside out of the state, and shall not have, known property within this state, which could, by the common and ordinary process of law, be attached, the time of his absence shall not be taken as any part of the time limited for the commencement of the action. 260.-Sect. 15. If any person, entitled to bring any of the actions, before mentioned in this chapter, or liable to any such action, shall die before the expiration of the time herein limited therefor, or within thirty days after the expiration of the said time, and if the cause of action does by law survive, the action may be commenced, by the executor or administrator, within two years after such death, or against the administrator or executor of the deceased person, or the same may be presented to the commissioners on said estate, as the case may be, at any time within two years after the grant of letters testamentary or of administration, and not afterwards, if barred by the provisions of this chapter; provided, however, if the commissioners on such estate are required to make their report to the probate court before, the, expiration of said two years, the claim against the deceased shall be presented to the commissioners within the time allowed other creditors to present their claims. 261.-Sect. 16. If, in any action, duly commenced within the time in this chapter limited and allowed therefor, the writ shall fail of a sufficient service, or return, by any unavoidable accident, or by any default or neglect of the officer to whom it is committed, or if the writ shall be abated, or the action otherwise defeated or avoided, by the death of any party thereto, or for any matter of form, or if after a verdict for the plaintiff, the judgment shall be arrested, or if a judgment for the plaintiff shall be reversed on a writ of, error, or on exceptions, the plaintiff may commence a new action for the same cause, at any time within one year after the abatement or other determination of the original suit, or after the reversal of the judgment therein; and if the cause of action does by law survive, his executor or administrator may, in case of his death, commence such new action within the said one year; or, if no executor or administrator be appointed within that time, then within one year after letters testamentary or of administration shall have been granted to him. 262.-Sec. 17. Whenever the commencement of any suit shall be stayed by an injunction of any court of equity, the time, during which such injunction shall be in force, shall not be deemed any portion of the time in this chapter limited, for the commencement of suit. 263.-Sect. 18. If any person entitled to bring any action in this chapter specified, shall, at the time when the cause of action accrues, be a minor or a married woman, insane or imprisoned, such person. may bring the said action, within the times in this chapter respectively limited, after the disability shall be removed. 264.-Sect. 19. None of the provisions of this chapter shall apply to suits brought to enforce payment on bills, notes or other evidences of debt, issued by moneyed corporations. 265.-Sect. 20. All, the provisions of this chapter shall apply to the case of a debt or contract, alleged by way of set-off; and the time of limitation of such debt shall be computed in like manner as if an action had been commenced therefor, at the time when the plaintiff's action was commenced. 266.-Sect. 21. The limitations herein before prescribed for the commencement of actions, shall apply to the same actions, when brought in the name of the state, or in the name of any officer, or otherwise, for the benefit of the state, in the same manner as to actions brought by citizens. 267.-Sect. 22. In actions of debt or upon the case founded on any contract, no acknowledgment or promise shall be evidence of a new or continuing contract, whereby to take any case out of the provisions of this chapter, or to deprive any party of the benefit thereof, unless such acknowledgment or promise be made or contained by or in some writing, signed by the party chargeable thereby. 268.-Sect. 23. If there are two or more joint contractors, or joint executors or administrators of any contractor, no such joint contractor, executor or administrator shall lose the benefit of the provisions of this chapter, so as to be chargeable by reason only of any acknowledgment or promise, made or signed by any other or others of them. 269.-Sect. 24. In actions commenced against two or more joint contractors, or joint executors or administrators of any contractor, if it shall appear on the trial, or otherwise, that the plaintiff is barred by the provisions of this chapter, as to one or more of the defendants, but is entitled to recover against any other or others of them, by virtue of a new acknowledgment or promise, or otherwise, judgment shall be given for the plaintiff as to any of the defendants against whom he is entitled to recover, and for the other defendant. or defendants against the plaintiff. 270.-Sect. 25. If, in any action on contract, the defendant shall plead in abatement, that any other person ought to have been, jointly sued, and issue be joined on that plea, and it shall appear on the trial, that the action was, by reason of the provisions of this chapter, barred against the person so named in the plea, the said issue shall be found for, the plaintiff. 271.-Sect. 26. Nothing, contained in the four preceding sections, shall alter, take away or lessen the effect of a payment of any principal or interest, made by any person. 272.-Sect. 27. If there are two or more joint contractors or joint executors or administrators of any contractor, no one of them shall lose the benefits of the provisions of this chapter, so as to be chargeable by reason only of any payment, made by any other or others of them. 273.-Sect. 28. None of the provisions of this chapter, respecting the acknowledgment of a debt, or a new promise to pay it, shall apply to any such acknowledgment or promise, made before the first day of January, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and forty-two, but every such last mentioned acknowledgment or promise, although not made in writing, shall have the same effect as if no provisions, relating thereto, had been herein contained. 274.-Sect. 29. The provisions of this chapter which alter or vary the law now in force relative to the limitation of actions shall not apply to any case where the cause of action accrues before this chapter shall take effect, and go into operation; and in all cases, where the cause of action accrues before this chapter takes effect, the laws now in force limiting the time for the commencement of suits thereon, shall continue in operation. 275. Virginia. 1. As to lands. All writs of formedon in descender, remainder, or reverter, of any lands, tenements or hereditaments, shall be sued out within twenty years next after the title or cause of action accrued, and not afterwards: and no person having any right or title of entry into any lands, &c. shall make any entry but within twenty years next after such right or title accrued. Persons entitled to such writ or right or title of entry, who are under twenty-one years of age, femes covert, non compos mentis, imprisoned, or not within the commonwealth, at the time such right or title accrues, may themselves or their heirs, notwithstanding the said twenty years have expired, bring and maintain his action, or make his entry, within ten years next after such disabilities removed, or the death of the person so disabled. 276. In all writs of right, and other actions possessory, any person may maintain a writ of right upon the possession or seisin of his ancestor or predecessor within fifty years, or any other possessory action upon the possession or seisin of his ancestor or predecessor, within forty years; but no person shall maintain a real action upon his own possession or seisin, but within thirty years next before the teste of the writ. 277.-2. As to personal actions. The provisions in relation to personal actions are as follows: 1. Upon all actions upon the case, (other than for slander,) actions of account or assumpsit, (other than such accounts as concern the trade of merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors or servants,) debt grounded upon any lending or contract without specialty, debt for arrears of rent, trespass, detinue, trover, or replevin for goods and chattels, and trespass quare clausum fregit, five years: 2. Upon actions of assault, battery, wounding, or imprisonment, three years: 3. Upon actions of slander, one year. Infants, femes covert, persons non compos mentis, imprisoned, beyond seas, or out of the country, are allowed full time to bring all such actions, except that of slander, after the disability has been removed. 278. All actions or suits, founded upon any account for goods, sold and delivered, or for articles charged in any store account, must be commenced within one year next after the cause of action, or the delivery of the goods, and not after; except that, in the case of the death of the creditors or debtors, before the expiration of the said term of one year, the farther time of one year, from the death of such creditor or debtor, shall be allowed. In suits in the name of any person residing beyond the seas, or out of this country, for recovery of any debt due for goods actually sold and delivered here by his factor or factors, the saving in favor of persons beyond the seas at the time their causes of action accrued, is not to be allowed; but, if any factor shall happen to die before the expiration of the time in which suit should have been brought, his principal shall be allowed two years from his death, to bring suit for any debt due on account of any contract or dealing with such factor. 1 Rev. Code, 489-491.

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