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14) He has also explained various forms of Buddhist meditation that members of other traditions can practice, such as calm abiding and purifying afflictive emotions, without violating any of the commitments of their own heritage.
The Dalai Lama has engaged in an illuminating dialogue with Western scientists and philosophers concerning constructive responses to afflictive emotions.
In contrast to the more prevalent "decisionist" models and practices (Maddox, 1998), transformist models prescribe practices aimed primarily: 1) to diminish the power of compensatory (false) implicit motives, afflictive affects (vices), and deficient relational representations, and 2) to develop character virtues (affective capacities) that increasingly make one more capable of creating and expressing compassion-hearted love.
Fourth, by this view, the central objective of spiritual transformation practices is "amplification" (Tomkins, 1970) of caring capacity by methods that: 1) expand (strengthen) action tendencies within the prosocial associational network (virtues), and 2) diminish (weaken) connections in the associational network of afflictive emotions (vices).
Following this theoretical trajectory, a functional capacity to care involves: 1) a person who 'possesses' the virtues that are associated with and facilitative of generative care (the issue of motivational capacity), and 2) a person who is sufficiently "free" of other afflictive (negative) motives and emotions that obstruct one's capacity to invest in self-selected others (the issue of functional freedom).
Transformation of the capacity to love (generative care) involves three inter-related goals and strategies targeted at implicit relational character (IRC) and associated afflictive emotions (vices).
Members of stigmatizing groups who fail to live up to false expectations of superiority often also suffer from further afflictive mental states, such as self-hatred, resentment, negativity, and envy.
Causes and Conditions for Afflictive Emotions: Tsongkhapa's Account
In his discussion of the afflictive emotions in the Great Treatise of the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment (lam rim chen mo), Tsongkhapa draws on three main causes of these emotions: object, subject and basis.
Similarly, even though unwanted, Afflictive emotions arise forcefully.
Such contact produces sensation or feeling--both physical and mental, which may be pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral--leading to craving, clinging, and other afflictive emotions that bring about suffering.
As illustrated in figure 1 below, in the Pali version this line of inquiry proceeds from qualifying conduct as unwholesome--via its nature of being blameworthy, afflictive, and having painful results--to the basic definition that such conduct causes affliction either to oneself, or to others, or to both, and thus leads to increase in unwholesomeness and a decrease in what is wholesome.