Of note, our dataset does not include illicit or nonprescribed antimicrobial drugs
The book is a concise summary of events and milestones that have been driving forces in the use of antimicrobial drugs
for food production efforts and objectively outlines the effect these efforts have had on the problem of drug resistance.
We report resistance rates for antimicrobial drugs
included in the study site laboratories' standard susceptibility testing panel.
gonorrhoeae may acquire new resistance mechanisms under selection pressures imposed by use of antimicrobial drugs
and horizontal gene transfer from other commensal Neisseria species resident in the human oropharynx (3).
The 1992 Institute of Medicine report Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States describes the ability of microbes to adapt, the development of antimicrobial drug
resistance, and the importance of recognizing and monitoring emerging microbial threats to human health (1).
For example, treatment of MDR infections requires ongoing access to high-quality clinical microbiology support; late-generation antimicrobial drugs
, which are typically given parenterally for up to 6 weeks; trained personnel; and sufficient h ospital space to isolate patients with resistant strains.
For -50% of patients, therapy consisted of combinations of [greater than or equal to]2 antimicrobial drugs
with in vitro activity against the KPC-Kp isolate.
To the best of our knowledge, before this report no foodborne carbapenemase-producing organisms had been identified in Canada and the United States, although the scope of antimicrobial drug
resistance surveillance programs is limited to major agricultural products (poultry, beef, and pork) (3,4).
Inappropriate use of antimicrobial drugs
in Medicaid programs is a potentially serious problem (4,5).
The diagnosis of resistance to antimicrobial drugs
has so far relied on culture techniques performed in reference centers; these procedures have a long turnaround-time, are technically demanding, and are sometime dangerous.
Isolates in both cultures were susceptible to amoxicillin, macrolide antimicrobial drugs
, cefoxitin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin and were resistant to cefotaxime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Table; blood isolate, day 1).
Therefore, current antimicrobial drugs
have limited effectiveness and mortality of VRE infection is high.