antitrust laws


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antitrust laws

n. acts adopted by Congress to outlaw or restrict business practices considered to be monopolistic or which restrain interstate commerce. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 declared illegal "every contract, combination....or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce" between states or foreign countries. The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, amended by the Robinson-Patman Act of 1936, prohibits discrimination among customers through pricing and disallows mergers, acquisitions or takeovers of one firm by another if the effect will "substantially lessen competition." Interstate commerce includes commerce within a state which affects the flow of that commerce, thus making it pretty broad. There are also some state laws against restraint of trade. The Antitrust Division of the U. S. Department of Justice enforces for the federal government, but private lawsuits to halt antitrust activities have become increasingly popular, particularly since attorneys fees are awarded to the winning party. This is a legal specialty which has kept some industries relatively honest and made some lawyers wealthy. (See: restraint of trade, price fixing)

References in periodicals archive ?
And given the uncertainty in this area of the law, and the severe monetary penalties for violations, it behooves franchisors to consult an attorney who specializes in antitrust laws prior to implementing a resale pricing policy.
Last week's American Needle ruling reinforced the decades-old notion that sports leagues cannot escape antitrust law.
Don't think that because you aren't a multinational company that you are immune from the antitrust laws.
If you do not, both you and your company run the risk of serious criminal and civil penalties for violation of federal and state antitrust law.
Stelzer, an economist, views the antitrust laws as an effective tool for avoiding government regulation, thus leaving resource allocation to competitive markets rather than assigning it to public regulators (Stelzer, 1997).
The results are very telling--not just with regard to Microsoft, but to antitrust law in general.
Provide association staff, officers, directors, and members with sufficient knowledge of antitrust laws to be able to recognize antitrust problems when they arise.
Absent a mediated settlement it is anticipated that Judge Jackson will rule that Microsoft is in violation of the antitrust laws.
antitrust laws is not limited to conduct and transactions that occur within the boundaries of the United States.
I'm not sufficient aware of the facts to really have a definitive opinion as to whether Microsoft was violatin any antitrust laws.
The Court concluded that the remedial purposes of the antitrust laws would best be served by adopting a presumption that monopolistic overcharges are borne entirely by the direct purchaser.
The primary objective of federal antitrust laws is to prevent anti-competitive conduct.