Doctrinal scholars have focused on mental state/impairment "defences" such as insanity, automatism
, diminished responsibility, infanticide, and sometimes intoxication, without taking a step back to analyze the conceptual underpinnings of this category of "defences" as a whole.
According to Fried, a very "different stylistic regime is in force" (6) in Salammbo, inasmuch as every aspect of the text that Flaubert could control is "exclusively the product of conscious intention, of the faculty of will," resulting in a novel "devoid of the effects of habit and automatism
that are continually at work in Madame Bovary" (117).
would be diffif cult to prove where the medical condition is pre-existing.
His landmark treatise on automatisms
, which includes references to psychology and parapsychology authors (e.
has come to denote in the criminal law 'conduct of which the doer is not conscious' and therefore not voluntary.
Rigidities and automatism
emerge--for example, to comic effect--not as the polar opposite of some putative 'pure life' but as instances of petrifaction within the processes generated by the difficult co-implication of subject and Other.
Within five pages, these poor women have become "beingless beings": "These two beings have been rendered even more beingless by their presence, courtesy of the book's automatism
, in a scene from which they are absent" (117-8).
If an addiction is an automatism
, then our job as treatment professionals is twofold: first, to educate alcoholics and addicts about the nature of their condition and what they have to do; second, to hold them responsible for maintaining abstinence.
Hantai's "Etudes," departing from that conception, refigure automatism
not as a descent into psychic depths but as an opening toward an outside.
The jury has also been told there are two types of automatism
: insane automatism
and non-insane automatism
Tart (1963) and more recently by Dean Radin (1997), may be seen as a motor automatism
in which the motor response is not clearly visible without instrumental amplification.
He defended himself on the grounds of non-insane automatism
and a doctor testified that the accused was extremely susceptible to hypnosis and may well not have come out of the trance during the group "de-hypnosis" procedure.