More specifically, subjects who received the derived extinction procedure avoided the derived aversive stimulus 24% of the time, whereas subjects who received the direct extinction procedure avoided the direct aversive stimulus 76% of the time.
B1 is the direct aversive stimulus and B2 is the direct pleasant stimulus.
Subjects will not typically emit aggressive responses in the absence of provocation (Azrin, Hutchinson, & McLaughlin, 1965; Kelly, Cherek, Steinberg, & Robinson, 1988), and escape from an aversive stimulus
The purpose of this phase was to ensure that the putative aversive stimulus
(the tone) functioned as a negative reinforcer.
Therefore, people assume that manual restraint functions as a positive punisher in its ability (in a given case) to act as an aversive stimulus
Learned Learned helplessness refers to a variety of Helplessness paradigms in which the animal is exposed to an inescapable aversive stimulus
In other words, these individuals have a persistent AO for pain as an aversive stimulus
, and this condition may last across an individual's lifespan.
The consequence can be the introduction of an aversive stimulus
The motivating operation in a story can be termed a literary motivating operation or story motivating operation to (a) differentiate it from motivating operations that are not a part of stories; (b) distinguish the special property of the aversive stimulus
as being a source of interest to the reader; and (c) specify that the aversive stimulus
is temporary and will be removed or resolved by the outcome of the story.
Trace conditioning with X-rays as an aversive stimulus
Forgiveness is the reduction of conditioned aversive stimulus
or threat after a response has been made.
i) An aversive stimulus
may elicit responses which are incompatible with the punished response (e.