dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
3 [degrees]C, indicating that the PCR master mixture contained amplifiable bacterial DNA.
Fossil bones get contaminated with the DNA of those who unearth these finds as well as with fungal and bacterial DNA.
We obtained bacterial DNA and performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ompA gene and restriction analysis under conditions previously described by Roux et al.
This includes quickly identifying viral and bacterial DNA signatures, which assists in controlling the transmission of infectious diseases.
A strategy for monitoring the interaction between bacterial communities and viruses is to sequence specific bacterial DNA elements that confer acquired immunity against viral attack, called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs).
Fundamental to many of these mechanisms is mutation of bacterial DNA.
In 2005 SIRS-Lab launched the product line Looxster(TM) that was developed on the basis of the specific bacterial DNA binding characteristics of the Pureprove(TM) -Technology.
difficile Tox A/B assay for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile bacterial DNA.
cholera samples on November 8 and had the bacterial DNA sequence from Pacific Biosciences in hand by November 12.
When the researchers coerced the bacterial DNA to assume the shape of a ring and repeated the experiment, the reaction generated silica rings.
Bacterial DNA was extracted by lysis (Generations, Gentra, Maryland) of liver and cell culture specimens from each of the four frogs.