dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, in previous populations, several infectious diseases have been analyzed successfully by identifying bacterial DNA, eg, tuberculosis,[2-5] leprosy,[6,7] malaria,[8] Chagas disease,[9] and plague (Yersinia pestis[10]).
The contract also calls for HNC to create bioinformatics technology that recognizes patterns within bacterial DNA codes to accurately identify an organism.
Segal's group further found that severe to moderate autoimmune disease results if the cells that react to myelin basic protein are exposed to bacterial DNA or the cell wall component and are then injected into mice.
The vector is a re-engineered, naturally occurring piece of lactic acid bacterial DNA.
The 17 papers here reflect these and other advances, including new technologies of detection and detection of resistance, physical mapping of genomes, genome-based identification and molecular analysis, microarray analysis in genetic research, manipulation of large bacterial DNA segments, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, phages and prophages (and their practical aspects), applications of cell imaging, kinesin accumulation, transport assays in intact cells, methods in cell-to-cell signaling, development of strains as cancer therapy agents, and further resources for molecular protocols in research.
Tokyo, Japan, Feb 27, 2007 - (JCN) - Keio University Institute for Advanced Biosciences and Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus announced the development of a new technology that enables the use of bacterial DNA as a medium for long-term data preservation.
Cheil Jedang Corporation (Korea) has patented a novel endonuclease enzyme which is secreted from immune cell and recognizes bacterial DNA as foreign agent and processes it to produce about 10 bp single-stranded oligonucleotide including CpG motif which is involved in immune response.
Genomic DNA was successfully extracted from sediments collected from sites 42, 44, 48, and 50, however repeated extractions from sites 21 and 41 sediments yielded no detectable bacterial DNA.
The main tools of GENSAT are bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), which are simple loops of bacterial DNA that reproduce outside the cell.
Manning: When you attempt to detect organisms by PCR, is it true that you can't use a cotton swab because dead bacterial DNA might be present on the swab?
The researchers grouped 1,359 TB patients into clusters according to their bacterial DNA fingerprints.
It has become the world's most-used software program for deciphering bacterial DNA and has proven itself 98 percent accurate.