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Papua New Guineans inherited a very large duplication of about 225,000 base pairs from Denisovans, an extinct group of hominids related to Neandertals.
We have now shown that our synthetic base pair, X and Y, can not only be replicated in vivo but are also compatible with the natural biological machinery to enable novel protein expression.
To get a sense of the energy and temperature ranges here, a DNA sequence of about equal numbers of A:T and G:C base pairs, about 13 base pairs in total length, has a Tm of around 37[degrees]C, while a similar random sequence of about 20 bases has a Tm of about 51[degrees]C Making sequences longer or more G:C rich raises the Tm.
DNA is made up from atoms that join together to make bases, phosphates and sugars, which then combine to make base pairs.
This is the first reported example of a semi-synthetic organism that is able to stably maintain and replicate a synthetic base pair in its DNA.
Hoogsteen base pairs have previously been observed in double-stranded DNA, but only when the molecule is bound to proteins or drugs or when the DNA is damaged.
We fused the identical 1905 base pair 5' regulatory region of the human CYP1A1 gene to the cDNA sequence encoding GFP (Figure 2).
In this scenario, a GT base pair forms spontaneously when C undergoes deamination.
Waterston's group found that the roughly 3 billion base pairs in the genomes of the two species have the same sequence 96 percent of the time.
Depending on the haplotype of the gene in a particular individual, a single base pair variation (SNP) in the promoter region can have a substantially different impact on the production of the protein.
Using 25 base pair reads, Solexa scientists were able to uniquely align 90% of the BAC back to its own reference sequence.