20) The benefactive
declension in other Northern Samoyedic languages seems not to allow this.
Given that, the matrix predicate in (4a) assigns dative case and experiencer theta-role to eallum mannum, while that of (4b) assigns dative case and benefactive
theta-role to ceniyum.
In the Crab wangga, the main verb nganyartedimbele contains two ordered segments: the incorporated nominal--rtedi, 'back/top surface', and the benefactive
bound pronoun--mbele, 'for you'.
I use the terms dative, benefactive
, instrument, and locative to refer to the semantic functions of indirect objects.
The ditransitivity of 'give' is further reflected in the fact that in many languages the benefactive
application of 'give' produces a four-place verb, as in the languages illustrated below:
Languages often have a special benefactive
construction that portrays this type of situation, where the effect on the beneficiary is indicated by its argument status in syntactic coding.
This article discusses the development of possessive classifiers into benefactive
markers in Oceanic languages.
The Biblical Hebrew Reflexive is used for reflexive (he washed himself), anticausative (wisdom will vanish), benefactive
(they prayed for themselves), estimative (he pretends to be rich; he appears as a prophet), reciprocal (they look atone another), and generic passive (pains will be forgotten).
In (c) the sense of yajniya-approaches that of a gerundive, a category which may take a benefactive
dative object in the Rigveda (cf.
2 there are also examples of sequential -lng- being placed after benefactive
-marnu-, merging with it to give the sequence -malng-.
While most Laz dialects have argument marking (absolutive, ergative, dative) as well as adjunct marking cases, in the dialect of Ardesen--which is under investigation here--argument NPs are always unmarked for case, as can be seen in (5), where, in contrast to the benefactive
here seni 'for the child', the theme NP kitabi 'book' is neither inflected for case, nor marked by any other formal means.
Similar observations hold for compound verbs with auxiliary giving verbs, which convey the benefactive