However, like most adopted adults, she admits to being curious about her biological parents
Nevertheless, these HILDA data clearly show that among children who live with couples in a de facto relationship, the majority are living with both biological parents
, not one biological parent
only and that parent's partner.
The landscape is somewhat different in cases of second-parent adoption, where one member of a samesex couple is a biological parent
and the nonbiological partner wishes also to become a legal parent.
Thus far, empirical findings reflect that most children appear to be healthier, more competent in school, and more emotionally healthy when they live with two biological parents
and have the most troubled lives when neither parent is present (Amato, 1998; Phares, 1997).
The law says biological parents
and adoptive parents must contribute to the maintenance of their children.
I suggest they spare a thought for those children longing to have someone they can call Mum and Dad, when their biological parents
have failed them.
The other biological parent
would then cease to be a legal parent when the adoption order is made.
A child should not be removed from the primary care of his or her biological parents
without compelling reason.
Whether you ever took any steps to exclude the biological parent
from the child's life and showed you intended to replace that parent
Only in cases when children had been abandoned, orphaned, or legally relinquished, and/or when biological parents
had proved themselves unfit would the courts intervene to place children in state or adoptive hands--and, theoretically, only when adoption served a child's interests.
Matthews, a lesbian who plans to someday start a family with her partner, knows that current fertilization capabilities allow only one of them to be a biological parent
Intention is only one of the factors involved in the decision, and it can be expressed formally or inferred from conduct such as the forming of a new family, the treatment by the step-parent of the child as part of that family, participation of the child in the extended family as if the child was a biological child, financial provision, involvement in discipline, express or implied representations to the child and to the community at large that he or she has parental responsibility for the child, and the degree of contact between the child and the absent biological parent