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All participants demonstrated impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery at baseline.
Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), flow associated dilatation (FAD %) and nitric oxide sensitivity of the smooth muscle cell of the brachial artery to nitroglycerine (GTN %) are legitimate markers of early atherosclerosis (12-24).
Brachial artery pressure index was also significantly improved in both the folic acid and 5-MTHF groups.
The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is used in the assessment of PAD and is calculated by dividing the systolic pressure at the ankle by the systolic pressure in the brachial artery.
To evaluate the extent of endothelial dysfunction, they measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation and glyceryl trinitrate-induced dilatation in 113 women with previous preeclampsia who were a median 3 years post partum, and 48 controls.
Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery via ultrasound.
Vita concluded, "The study examined endothelium dependent dilation of the brachial artery in 42 patients with coronary artery disease at baseline and two hours after a 300 mg oral dose of EGCG and after placebo.