apparatus

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The branchial apparatus consists of six grooves (ectoderm), arches (mesoderm), and pouches (endoderm).
Sakamoto (1984) utilized data on the branchial apparatus in his phylogenetic studies of Pleuronectidae, exploiting seven characters: 5th ceratobranchials, the shape of the 1st epibranchial, teeth on the 3rd epibranchial, gill rakers on the upper limb of the branchial arch, spines on gill rakers, shape of gill rakers and bony plates on the branchial arches.
Congenital branchial apparatus malformation in a Haflinger colt.
The first branchial apparatus normally gives rise to the eustachian tube, tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum, a portion of the tympanic membrane, external auditory canal, the mandible, maxilla, and the malleus and incus.
In in vitro teratogenicity studies with rat embryos, changes at the branchial apparatus were seen at 25 [micro]M for both triadimefon and triadimenol (Menegola et al.
DISCUSSION: The branchial apparatus were first described by Von Baer while its anomalies were first described by von Ascheroni.
Branchial anomalies are caused by incomplete obliteration of the branchial apparatus during fetal development.
The branchial apparatus of all vertebrates is composed of 6 pharyngeal arches, but only 4 are well developed in mammals and birds.
The majority of cystic neck masses in children are congenital malformations and include thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial apparatus cysts, dermoid cysts, and lymphatic malformations.