Rather than a necessary consequence of democracy, however, they find that higher levels of bureaucratization
are negatively associated with elected superintendents.
affects employment practices.
He explores what were then new ideas about modernity, centralization and bureaucratization
of religion, the significance of sectarian in-fighting among Japanese Buddhists, missionary work, the agency of Korean monks under colonial rule, and competing nationalism.
The professionalization and bureaucratization
of the civil service, along with its geographic expansion, forced diplomats to relate to ever-widening constituencies both at home and abroad.
The goals of centralization, bureaucratization
, and social differentiation, pursued during the NEP through prejudicial tax policies, show trials of trade officials, and coercion and repression in times of crisis, bridged the two eras and laid the foundations for the socialist economy of the Stalinist years.
According to Norwood, these students, often the sons of the American bourgeoisie, were, like their fathers, faced with a "crisis of masculinity" rooted in the increasing bureaucratization
of early 20th-century corporate America.
Pakulski and Waters argue that the economic foundations of class have been destroyed by bureaucratization
, the separation of ownership and control, increased state intervention and ownership in the economy, the growing importance of educational credentials, professionalization, recognition of gender and ethnic and racial inequalities and conflicts, growth of non-manual work, declining union density, and widening property ownership (in pension plans, mutual funds, and homes).
The declining economy and state bureaucratization
also threatened the elites, who responded by further privatizing charity, earmarking funds for institutions and causes which would help their kin, their clients, and themselves.
Many of the compliance issues surrounding the ADA offer case studies in how sweeping employment laws tend to abet centralization and bureaucratization
in the workplace.
Zieger's closing pages are devoted to a provocative interpretation of the institution's bureaucratization
, of its loss of vision and political courage, of its complicit role in the fragmenting and segmenting of the labor force, of its chronic inability to organize among white collar and service workers.
Already by late 1918, concentration of power at the centre and bureaucratization
began to affect Soviet nationality policy.
The second factor was bureaucratization
in the postindustrial state.