dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Transformed Escherichia coli harboring pET-28a/ISG15 cDNA was sub-cultured in Lurria Bertani media supplemented with Kanamycin (100 [micro]g/mL) and incubated at 37[degrees]C until the OD600 reached 0.
Pioneering the development of quality adenovirus and other viral vector production, ViGene features the world's largest collection of human full-length cDNA ORF clones, miRNA clones, premade cDNA ORF and miRNA adenoviruses, and top-of-the-line custom services.
Module 2: Preparation of second-strand cDNA and amplification of gene-specific cDNA using PCR
One microgram of total RNA was used to generate cDNA using Superscript II reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA).
The presence of differently display cDNA bands indicated that genes representing the particular cDNA were differently expressed in that particular sample compared to others.
The Fa2, Fb2 and Fc2 primers and two external primers, 5' forward FfgsII and 3' reverse RfgsII, were used to generate the second synthetic human IFN[alpha]2 cDNA fragment.
The polymorphic alleles were inherited in a Mendelian fashion indicating that these cDNA markers are useful for pedigree tracing and genetic diversity studies.
At this stage, they become known as "libraries," because each bacterial colony contains a plasmid with a unique cDNA from switchgrass.
The RDV method comprises 6 procedures: 1) effective destruction of cellular RNA and DNA for semipurification of viral particles, 2) effective elimination of DNA fragments by using a pre filtration column system and elution of small amounts of RNA, 3) effective synthesis of first- and second-strand cDNAs, 4) construction and amplification of a eDNA library, 5) construction of a second eDNA library, and 6) direct sequencing using optimized primers.
The group is considering a standard, albeit laborious, cDNA screening approach.