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The second category, repetition, subdivided into borrowing and calque (Vinay & Darbelnet 1995: 32), implies that the source text item is not substituted but repeated or transferred directly from the source text into the translation.
Homophonic translation" usefully names a recognizable way of dealing with the relation between "foreign" speech and "native" meaning through a set of multilingual practices that can be: creatively liberating, as often for students in poetry workshops; good for a laugh, as for generations of English schoolboys learning Latin; or symptomatic of mental disorder, as in the case of Freud's polyglot patient who distanced himself from his mother('s) tongue by compulsively reconstituting all the words of his "native" language as phonetic calques on "foreign" ones.
Or instead, I would tender, the Romans may have partially translated their via lactea from Eratosthenes' kyklos galaxias 'circle of milk,' from which we derive galaxy, now a generic term for the Milky Way, though formerly our specific term; and kyklos galaxias may further be the source of our obsolete English calque, lacteous circle, which would support this hypothesis.
The general Thangmi word for the tepals of a flower, likely a calque from Nepali.
Une tepe conception du partenariat qui propose, au mieux, la formation dune democratie d'executif derivee (ou deleguee) se presente comme un simple calque de la regulation technojuridique qui faonne actuellement l'espace mondial.
My favorites are the calque "learned to know" for "became acquainted with" (11), and the legend "Sami dresses" beneath an illustration showing both a man and woman in traditional costume.
Le processus de developpement ne peut donc plus etre calque sur l'organigramme des organisations.
The editors do reprint some pleasurable texts from these years: the short "Preciosilla" (1913), a portrait of a Spanish singer Stein and Toklas, who both adored Spain, had heard in Madrid, which ends "Toasted susie is my ice-cream"; "Guillaume Apollinaire," which begins with Stein's bilingual calque on the French poet's name, "Give known or pin ware"; "Marry Nettie" (1917), which may be a saucy portrait of futurist Filippo Marinetti and which ends with words made to warm the heart of every dogged Stein reader, "We all wish to go now.
Ce mode d'action, a l'instar de plusieurs autres tous domaines confondus, est pietrement calque sur la France: Un pays qui avec l'Angleterre et les Eetats-Unis, compte les plus grandes galeries et maisons de ventes aux encheres d'oeuvres d'art au monde.
Tom Shippey argues that Tolkien basically 'calqued' the Shire from Edwardian England, by which he means that the author of The Hobbit took bits and pieces from English culture and society and reconstituted them back together again translated into a creatively new form neither belonging fully to the real world nor to Middle-earth (115-116), in the same manner as "Mirkwood" is a calque from Old Norse, but is strictly speaking neither genuinely Old Norse nor Modern English.
Au moment oE les autres ont calque notre modele, nous avons neglige la formation et les jeunes categories.
Ensuite, la propriete sui generis, un calque du legal title du trustee retenu par la jurisprudence pour qualifier le statut du fiduciaire (29), ne fournissait aucun mecanisme capable d'assurer une gestion competente et loyale, exclusivement conduite dans l'interet des beneficiaires.