A good scorecard measure captures the targeted dimension of performance on the balanced scorecard and also predicts performance in other perspectives along the causal
chain (illustrated in Figure 2).
Essays 2-6 explore the issues of reductionism and causal
deviance surrounding CTA.
2011) or they added ozone to their models without stating the causal
relationships among temperature, ozone, and mortality (e.
According to the causal
binding hypothesis, the Self-Causal
conditions should lead participants to anticipate the target flash earlier relative to Baseline; according to intentional binding accounts, only participants in the Self-Causal
condition would show early anticipation.
The first two contributions show how far we got in respect to applying the new methodological tools in causal
Why are they so set at treating cannabis users differently to people that choose to drink alcohol or smoke tobacco, both known to be dangerous and addictive to some people and with a definite causal
link between booze and psychotic illness.
To give reasons for those processes--to explain the functions they serve and the effects they have--would require appeal to some causal
Yet most health services researchers know from first-hand experience that identifying and estimating causal
effects using observational data is extremely difficult, and that convincing others and even ourselves that we have successfully done so can be challenging.
The fact that the instructions used in both experiments suggested a causal
interpretation of the relationships between cues and outcomes makes it difficult to extrapolate the results to non-causal
Since a causal
process cannot be caused by a part of itself, [Dretske] must maintain that reasons do not in fact cause the actions they rationalize.
Evidence of a causal
role of winter virus infection during infancy in early childhood asthma.
Depictions of cigarette smoking are pervasive in movies; they occur in three-quarters or more of contemporary box office hits, the NCI report said, adding that the weight of evidence indicates a causal
relationship between exposure to depictions of smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation.