Evidence for a causal association
between human papillomavirus and a subset of head and neck cancers.
Available data do not establish a clear causal association
with female-to-male HIV transmission, nor is the possibility of an association definitively ruled out.
To date the strength of this causal association
has not be studied.
Researchers are still investigating the link and believe it may not be a direct causal association
The varying responses associated with PPI dose and duration and the possibility that acid inhibition may decrease calcium absorption support a causal association
between PPI use and fracture risk.
Early systems for drug safety reporting relied upon a medically qualified person, suspecting a causal association
between the event and the medication to report a suspected adverse reaction.
4] This data is in line with a recent review of the ADT/metabolic syndrome which showed a clear casual association between ADT and diabetes mellitus, but the causal association
is not as strong with CVS morbidity.
When applying the "Carcinogenic to Human" descriptor, the guidelines require convincing epidemiologic evidence of a causal association
between human exposure and cancer.
The Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) will look carefully at all of the available data to determine whether there is evidence for a causal association
Under the assumption of a simple model of causality without pleiotropy, population stratification, or genetic heterogeneity, the test of an association between the genotype and coronary heart disease provides a reasonable test of whether there is a causal association
between hsCRP and coronary heart disease (3).
Although this may be due to chance, a causal association
must be considered.
Furthermore, the analysis did not assess whether taking a pledge had any causal association
with later sexual activity.