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In other writings, culminating in Orality and Literacy (1982), Ong summarizes research on the differences between primary oral cultures (those that do not have writing or even any sense that writing exists somewhere else) and chirographic cultures.
Viewed from his discussion of the persistence of hermeneutics (1995/1999), hermeneutics accompanies every communication form--oral, chirographic, printed, electronic--in an unending conversation that ultimately reveals the interior of one person to another.
Ong refers to as an "unconscious chirographic and typographic bias" (1980, p.
402) for cultural and communication studies, he highlights its method, particularly in focusing the examination on the interface between cultures, as occurred in the culture of classical antiquity or the medieval period when oral cultures (the culture of the great mass of people) more clearly interacted with the chirographic ones of the educated elites.
The stages of communication media appear clearly: oral communication in oral cultures; writing in chirographic cultures; print in print-based cultures; and various media in electronic cultures.