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The duration of the effect varies with the toxin serotype, the amount of toxin, and the type of cholinergic nerve terminal affected (Montecuuco & Molgo, 2005).
High-affinity Ch uptake is considered the primary mechanism by which cholinergic nerve endings accumulate Ch for ACh synthesis (23, 24).
Botulinum toxin, which causes temporary chemical denervation of the cholinergic nerve fibers, has also been used successfully to manage sialoceles.
Conversely, stimulation of the parasympathetic or cholinergic nerve fibers causes contraction of bronchiole smooth muscle, leading to bronchoconstriction (McPhee, Lingappa, Ganong, & Lange, 2000).
Atropine basically blocks the stimulation of cholinergic nerve receptors and this blockade results in the following symptoms: dilated pupils, dry and flushed appearing skin, urinary retention, elevated temperature, rapid heart rate, a significant increase in blood pressure, disorientation or delirium, seizures, hallucinations, heart rhythm disturbances, coma, and occasionally death.
d]) of HC-3 as in the mammalian brain, and by mid-pluteus 1, the concentration of binding sites relative to membrane protein was > 200 fmol/mg, comparable with mammalian brain regions that are enriched in cholinergic nerve terminals (Zahalka et al.
An important feature of Alzheimer's disease is the progressive loss of cholinergic nerve cells, leading to a decline of critical chemical signals in the brain.
The network of cholinergic nerve cells--which release the chemical acetylcholine during message transmission between cells--is also affected in Alzheimer patients.